#219: Functional Deficit: Change in Risk-Adjusted Functional Status for Patients with Lower Leg, Foot or Ankle Impairments

Quality ID

219

NQF

0424

High Priority Measure

Yes

Specifications

Registry

Measure Type

Outcome

Specialty

N/A

Measure description

A self-report measure of change in functional status (FS) for patients 14 years+ with foot and ankle impairments. The change in functional status (FS) assessed using FOTO’s (foot and ankle) PROM (patient reported outcomes measure) is adjusted to patient characteristics known to be associated with FS outcomes (risk adjusted) and used as a performance measure at the patient level, at the individual clinician, and at the clinic level to assess quality

 

Instructions

This outcomes measure is to be submitted once per treatment episode for all patients with a functional deficit related to the lower leg, foot or ankle. This is an outcomes measure and its calculation requires submitting of the patient’s functional status score, as a minimum, at admission to and again at discharge from an episode of rehabilitation.The admission score, estimated using patient self-report surveys, is recorded during the first rehabilitationtreatment encounter and the discharge score is recorded at or near the conclusion of the final rehabilitation treatment encounter. It is anticipated that physical and occupational therapists providing treatment for functional lower leg, foot or ankle deficits will submit this measure.

Definitions:

Functional deficit – Limitation or impairment of physical abilities/function resulting in evaluationand inclusion in a treatment plan of care.

Treatment Episode – A Treatment Episode is defined as beginning with an Admission for a functional foot or ankle deficit, progressing to development of a plan of care, including treatment, without interruption of care (for example, a hospitalization or surgical intervention), and ending with Dischargefrom clinical care by the eligible clinician. A patient currently under clinical care for a foot orankle deficit remains in a single episode of care until the Discharge is conducted and documented by theeligible clinician.

Admission – An Admission is the first encounter for a functional deficit involving the lower leg, foot orankle and includes an evaluation (CPT 97161, 97162, 97163 for physical therapy or 97165, 97166, 97167 for occupational therapy) and development of a plan of care by the eligible clinician. A patient presenting with a foot or ankle impairment, who has had an interruptionof a Treatment Episode for the same functional foot or ankle deficit secondary to an appropriate reason like hospitalization or surgical intervention, is a new Admission.

Discharge – Discharge is accompanied by a re-evaluation CPT 97164 for physical therapy, or 97168 for occupational therapy, or Functional Limitation Submitting Discharge Status G-Code (G8980, G8983, G8986, G8989, G8992 or G8995) identifying the close of a Treatment Episode for the same foot or ankle deficit identified at admissionand documented by a discharge report by the eligible clinician. An interruption in clinical care foran appropriate reason like hospitalization or surgical intervention requires a discharge from the current Treatment Episode.

Encounter – A face to face visit between the patient and the provider for the purpose of assessing and/or improving a functional deficit.

Patient Reported – The patient directly, or through a proxy, provides answers to functional statussurvey items using standardized, reliable and valid, computerized adaptive testing or paper and pencilsurvey methods.

Measure Submission:

The listed denominator criteria is used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted for registry submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those registries that utilize claims data.

 

Denominator

All patients 14 years and older with foot or ankle impairments who have initiated rehabilitation treatment and completed the FOTO foot and ankle PROM at admission and discharge

Option 1 – Physical Therapy Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

All patients aged ≥ 14 years on date of encounter

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period identifying evaluation (CPT): 97161, 97162, 97163

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period identifying discharge (CPT or HCPCS): 97164, G8980, G8983, G8986, G8989, G8992, G8995

AND

Functional deficit affecting the foot or ankle

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSIONS:

Patient refused to participate: G9730

OR

Patient unable to complete the FOTO foot or ankle Intake PROM at admission and discharge due to blindness, illiteracy, severe mental incapacityor language incompatibility and an adequate proxy is not available: G9731

OR

Option 2 – Occupational Therapy Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

All patients aged ≥ 14 years on date of encounter

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period identifying evaluation (CPT): 97165, 97166, 97167

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period identifying discharge (CPT or HCPCS): 97168, G8980, G8983, G8986, G8989, G8992, G8995

AND

Functional deficit affecting the foot or ankle

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSIONS:

Patient refused to participate: G9730

OR

Patient unable to complete the FOTO foot or ankle Intake PROM at admission and discharge due to blindness, illiteracy, severe mental incapacityor language incompatibility and an adequate proxy is not available: G9731

 

Numerator

Patients who were presented with the FOTO Foot or Ankle Functional Status measure at Admission (Intake) and Discharge (Status) for the purpose of calculating the patient’s Risk-adjusted Functional Status Change Residual Score

Definitions:

Patient’s Functional Status Score – A functional status score is produced when the patient completes the FOTO functional status survey (either by paper and pencil or computerized adaptive testingadministration). The functional status score is continuous and linear. Scores range from 0 to 100 with higher scores meaning higher functional abilities. The survey is standardized, and the scores are validated for the measurement of function forthis population.

Patient’s Functional Status Change Score – A functional status change score is calculated by subtracting the Patient’s Functional Status Score at Admission from the Patient’s Functional Status Score atDischarge.

Predicted Functional Status Change Score – Functional Status Change Scores for patients are risk adjusted using multiple linear regression methods that include the following independent variables:Patient’s Functional Status Score at Admission, patient age, symptom acuity, surgical history, gender, number of comorbidities, and level of fear-avoidance. The Patient’s Functional Status Change Score is the dependent variable. The statistical regression produces a Risk-Adjusted Predicted Functional Status ChangeScore.

Risk-Adjusted Functional Status Change Residual Score – The difference between the raw non-riskadjusted Patient’s Functional Status Change Score and the Risk-Adjusted Predicted Functional Status Change Score (raw minus predicted) is the Risk-Adjusted Functional Status Change Residual Score,which is in the same units as the Patient’s Functional Status Scores, and should be interpreted as the unit of functional status change different than predicted given the risk-adjustment variables of the patient being treated. As such, the Risk-Adjusted Residual Change Score represents Risk-Adjusted Change corrected for the level of severity of the patient. Risk-Adjusted Residual Change Scores of zero (0) or greater (> 0)should be interpreted as functional status change scores that were predicted or better than predicted given theriskadjustment variables of the patient, and risk-adjusted residual change scores less than zero (< 0) shouldbe interpreted as functional status change scores that were less than predicted given the risk-adjustment variables of the patient. Aggregated Risk-Adjusted Residual Scores allow meaningful comparisons amongst clinicians or clinics.

Not Appropriate (Denominator Exception) – Prior to conclusion of Plan of Care, intervention was interrupted or discontinued for any reason includingby the referring physician, the provider, the payer or the patient, or due to hospitalization and attempts by the provider to completea follow-up functional status survey near Discharge were unsuccessful.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Risk-Adjusted Functional Status ChangeResidual Score for the foot or ankle successfully calculated and the score was equal to zero (0) or greater than zero (> 0) (G8655)

OR

Performance Met: Risk-Adjusted Functional Status ChangeResidual Score for the foot or ankle successfully calculated and the score was less than zero (< 0) (G8656)

OR

Denominator Exception: Risk-Adjusted Functional Status ChangeResidual Scores for the foot or ankle notmeasured because the patient did not complete FOTO’s Status Survey near discharge, patient Not Appropriate (G8657)

OR

Performance Not Met: Risk-Adjusted Functional Status ChangeResidual Scores for the foot or ankle notmeasured because the patient did not complete FOTO’s Functional Intake on admission and/or follow up Status Survey near discharge, reason not given (G8658)

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