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2020 MIPS Measure #404: Anesthesiology Smoking Abstinence

Quality ID

404

High Priority Measure

Yes

Specifications

Registry

Measure Type

Intermediate Outcome

Specialty

Anesthesiology

Measure Description

The percentage of current smokers who abstain from cigarettes prior to anesthesia on the day of elective surgery or procedure

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted each time an elective surgery, diagnostic, or pain procedure is performed under anesthesia during the performance period. There is no diagnosis associated with this measure. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who provide the listed anesthesia services as specified in the denominator coding will submit this measure.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

All patients aged 18 years and older who are evaluated in preparation for elective surgical, diagnostic, or pain procedure requiring anesthesia services and identified as a current smoker prior to the day of the surgery or procedure with instruction from anesthesiologist or proxy to abstain from smoking on the day of surgery or procedure

DENOMINATOR NOTE: Preoperative smoking cessation instruction can be performed by an anesthesiologist or proxy, including but not limited to a surgeon, nursing staff, or other preoperative care team member, as part of preoperative evaluation.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Patient procedure during the performance period (CPT): 00100, 00102, 00103, 00104, 00120, 00124, 00126, 00140, 00142, 00144, 00145, 00147, 00148, 00160, 00162, 00164, 00170, 00172, 00174, 00176, 00190, 00192, 00210, 00211, 00212, 00214, 00215, 00216, 00218, 00220, 00222, 00300, 00320, 00322, 00350, 00352, 00400, 00402, 00404, 00406, 00410, 00450, 00454, 00470, 00472, 00474, 00500, 00520, 00522, 00524, 00528, 00529, 00530, 00532, 00534, 00537, 00539, 00540, 00541, 00542, 00546, 00548, 00550, 00560, 00563, 00566, 00567, 00580, 00600, 00604, 00620, 00625, 00626, 00630, 00632, 00635, 00640, 00670, 00700, 00702, 00730, 00731, 00732, 00750, 00752, 00756, 00770, 00790, 00792, 00794, 00796, 00797, 00800, 00802, 00811, 00812, 00813, 00820, 00830, 00832, 00840, 00842, 00844, 00846, 00848, 00851, 00860, 00862, 00864, 00865, 00866, 00868, 00870, 00872, 00873, 00880, 00882, 00902, 00904, 00906, 00908, 00910, 00912, 00914, 00916, 00918, 00920, 00921, 00922, 00924, 00926, 00928, 00930, 00932, 00934, 00936, 00938, 00940, 00942, 00944, 00948, 00950, 00952, 01112, 01120, 01130, 01140, 01150, 01160, 01170, 01173, 01200, 01202, 01210, 01212, 01214, 01215, 01220, 01230, 01232, 01234, 01250, 01260, 01270, 01272, 01274, 01320, 01340, 01360, 01380, 01382, 01390, 01392, 01400, 01402, 01404, 01420, 01430, 01432, 01440, 01442, 01444, 01462, 01464, 01470, 01472, 01474, 01480, 01482, 01484, 01486, 01490, 01500, 01502, 01520, 01522, 01610, 01620, 01622, 01630, 01634, 01636, 01638, 01650, 01652, 01654, 01656, 01670, 01680, 01710, 01712, 01714, 01716, 01730, 01732, 01740, 01742, 01744, 01756, 01758, 01760, 01770, 01772, 01780, 01782, 01810, 01820, 01829, 01830, 01832, 01840, 01842, 01844, 01850, 01852, 01860, 01916, 01920, 01922, 01924, 01925, 01926, 01930, 01931, 01932, 01933, 01935, 01936, 01951, 01952, 01958, 01960, 01961, 01966, 01991, 01992, 27095, 27096, 62320, 62321, 62322, 62323, 62324, 62325, 62326, 62327, 64400, 64405, 64408, 64415, 64416, 64417, 64418, 64420, 64421, 64425, 64430, 64435, 64445, 64446, 64447, 64448, 64449, 64450, 64455, 64461, 64463, 64479, 64483, 64486, 64487, 64488, 64489, 64490, 64493, 64505, 64510, 64517, 64520, 64530, 0228T, 0230T

AND

Current smoker (e.g. cigarette, cigar, pipe, e-cigarette or marijuana): G9642

AND

Elective surgery: G9643

AND

Received instruction from the anesthesiologist or proxy prior to the day of surgery to abstain from smoking on the day of surgery: G9497

 

Numerator

Patients who abstained from smoking prior to anesthesia on the day of surgery or procedure

Definition:

Abstinence - Defined by either patient self-report or an exhaled carbon monoxide level of < 10 ppm.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Patients who abstained from smoking prior to anesthesia on the day of surgery or procedure (G9644)

OR

Performance Not Met: Patients who did not abstain from smoking prior to anesthesia on the day of surgery or procedure (G9645)

 

Rationale

Each year, approximately 10 million cigarette smokers require surgery and anesthesia in the U.S. Smoking is a significant independent risk factor for perioperative heart, lung, and wound-related complications. There now is good evidence that perioperative abstinence from smoking reduces the risk of heart, lung, and wound-related perioperative complications, and that the perioperative period represents a “teachable moment” for smoking cessation that improves long-term abstinence rates. While a longer duration of abstinence is associated with a greater benefit for patients, even just abstinence on the morning of surgery is associated with reduced levels of nicotine and carbon monoxide levels and a reduced risk of myocardial ischemia and surgical site infections. Evidence shows that perioperative tobacco cessation interventions can 1) increase perioperative abstinence rates in surgical patients who smoke and 2) decrease the rate of perioperative complications. Recent reviews identified a range of effective interventions, from brief counseling to the use of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy, that physicians who care for surgical patients (e.g., anesthesiologists and surgeons) can incorporate into their practices to improve perioperative smoking abstinence. Unfortunately, evidence also suggests that few of these physicians take advantage of the opportunity to intervene, and that many surgical patients still smoke even on the morning of surgery. If more surgical patients get help to quit smoking around the time of surgery, this will both reduce the rate of smoking-related perioperative complications such as wound infection, and lead to long-term improvements in health, as the average smoker gains 6-8 life years if they quit. Thus, this measure on abstinence on the morning of surgery not only directly affects acute surgical risk, but also serves as a marker for the provision of effective preoperative tobacco use interventions.


Clinical Recommendation Statements

Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service

It is essential that clinicians and health care delivery systems consistently identify and document tobacco use status and treat every tobacco user seen in a health care setting.

Tobacco dependence treatments are effective across a broad range of populations. Clinicians should encourage every patient willing to make a quit attempt to use the counseling treatments and medications recommended in this Guideline.

Brief tobacco dependence treatment is effective. Clinicians should offer every patient who uses tobacco at least the brief treatments shown to be effective in this Guideline.

2018 American Society of Anesthesiologists Statement on Smoking Cessation

Approximately one of every five American adults smoke cigarettes and up to half of these individuals will die prematurely because of their use of tobacco. The majority of these smokers want to quit. Each year, millions of cigarette smokers require surgery and anesthesia in the United States. Smoking has a direct impact on postoperative outcomes such as wound healing, and abstinence from smoking may improve these outcomes. In addition, surgery may represent a teachable moment for promotion of long-term smoking cessation: i.e., smokers may be more receptive to messages urging them to quit. For these reasons, the scheduling of surgery represents an excellent opportunity for cigarette smokers to quit smoking. Patients should abstain from smoking for as long as possible both before and after surgery, and they should obtain help in doing so. Patients can receive help in a variety of ways, including telephone quitlines (1- 800-QUITNOW), which are of proven efficacy and are now readily available to allAmericans.

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