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2020 MIPS Measure #005: Heart Failure (HF): Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) Therapy for Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (LVSD)

Quality ID

005

eMeasure ID

CMS135v8

NQF

0081

High Priority Measure

No

Specifications

EHR Registry

Measure Type

Process

Specialty

Cardiology Family Medicine Hospitalists Internal Medicine

Measure Description

Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with a current or prior left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% who were prescribed ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy either within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting OR at each hospital discharge

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted for all heart failure patients a minimum of once per performance period when seen in the outpatient setting AND submitted at each hospital discharge (99238* and 99239*) during the performance period.

*NOTE: When submitting CPT code 99238 and 99239, it is recommended the measure be submitted each time the code is submitted for hospital discharge.

This measure is intended to reflect the quality of services provided for patients with HF and decreased left ventricular systolic function. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding. Only patients who had at least two denominator eligible visits during the performance period will be counted for Submission Criteria 1.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

THERE ARE TWO SUBMISSION CRITERIA FOR THIS MEASURE:

1) All patients with a diagnosis of HF assessed during an outpatient encounter

OR

2) All patients with a diagnosis of HF and discharged from hospital

 

SUBMISSION CRITERIA 1: ALL PATIENTS WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF HF ASSESSED DURING AN OUTPATIENT ENCOUNTER

Denominator (Submission Criteria 1)

All patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure with a current or prior LVEF < 40%

DENOMINATOR NOTE: LVEF < 40% corresponds to qualitative documentation of moderate dysfunction or severe dysfunction. The LVSD may be determined by quantitative or qualitative assessment, which may be current or historical. Examples of a quantitative or qualitative assessment may include an echocardiogram: 1) that provides a numerical value of LVSD or 2) that uses descriptive terms such as moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function. Any current or prior ejection fraction study documenting LVSD can be used to identify patients.

To meet the denominator criteria, a patient must have an active diagnosis of heart failure at the time of the encounter which is used to qualify for the denominator and evaluate the numerator.

The encounter used to evaluate the numerator counts as 1 of the 2 encounters required for denominator inclusion. If the patient meets the heart failure diagnosis criterion, the diagnosis needs to be active only at the encounter being evaluated for the numerator action.

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases) 1:

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for heart failure (ICD-10-CM): I11.0, I13.0, I13.2, I50.1, I50.20, I50.21, I50.22, I50.23, I50.30, I50.31, I50.32, I50.33, I50.40, I50.41, I50.42, I50.43, I50.814, I50.82, I50.83, I50.84, I50.89, I50.9

AND

Patient encounter during performance period – to be used for numerator evaluation (CPT): 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350

WITHOUT

Telehealth Modifier: GQ, GT, 95, POS 02

AND

At least one additional patient encounter during performance period (CPT): 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350

WITH OR WITHOUT

Telehealth Modifier: GQ, GT, 95, POS 02

AND

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40% or documentation of moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function: 3021F

 

Numerator (Submission Criteria 1)

Patients who were prescribed ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting

Definition:

Prescribed – Outpatient setting: prescription given to the patient for ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy at one or more visits in the measurement period OR patient already taking ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy as documented in current medication list.

NUMERATOR NOTE: To meet the intent of the measure, the numerator quality action must be performed at the encounter at which the active diagnosis of heart failure is documented. MIPS eligible clinicians who have given a prescription for or whose patient is already taking an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) would meet performance for this measure. Other combination therapies that consist of an ACEI plus diuretic, ARB + neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), ARB plus diuretic, ACEI plus calcium channel blocker, ARB plus calcium channel blocker, or ARB plus calcium channel blocker plus diuretic would also meet performance for this measure. Denominator Exception(s) are determined on the date of the denominator eligible encounter.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) therapy prescribed or currently being taken (G2092)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of medical reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., hypotensive patients who are at immediate risk of cardiogenic shock, hospitalized patients who have experienced marked azotemia, allergy, intolerance, other medical reasons) (G2093)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of patient reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., patient declined, other patient reasons) (G2094)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of system reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., other system reasons) (G2095)

OR

Performance Not Met: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) therapy was not prescribed, reason not given (G2096)

 

OR

 

SUBMISSION CRITERIA 2: ALL PATIENTS WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF HF AND DISCHARGED FROM HOSPITAL

Denominator (Submission Criteria 2)

All patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure with a current or prior LVEF < 40%

DENOMINATOR NOTE: LVEF < 40% corresponds to qualitative documentation of moderate dysfunction or severe dysfunction. The LVSD may be determined by quantitative or qualitative assessment, which may be current or historical. Examples of a quantitative or qualitative assessment may include an echocardiogram: 1) that provides a numerical value of LVSD or 2) that uses descriptive terms such as moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function. Any current or prior ejection fraction study documenting LVSD can be used to identify patients.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases) 2:

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for heart failure (ICD-10-CM): I11.0, I13.0, I13.2, I50.1, I50.20, I50.21, I50.22, I50.23, I50.30, I50.31, I50.32, I50.33, I50.40, I50.41, I50.42, I50.43, I50.814, I50.82, I50.83, I50.84, I50.89, I50.9

AND

Patient encounter during performance period (CPT): 99238, 99239

AND

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40% or documentation of moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function: 3021F

 

Numerator (Submission Criteria 2)

Patients who were prescribed ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy at hospital discharge

Definition:

Prescribed – Inpatient setting: prescription given to the patient for ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy at discharge OR ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy to be continued after discharge as documented in the discharge medication list.

NUMERATOR NOTE: To meet the intent of the measure, the numerator quality action must be performed at each denominator eligible discharge. MIPS eligible clinicians who have given a prescription for or whose patient is already taking an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) would meet performance for this measure. Other combination therapies that consist of an ACEI plus diuretic, ARB + neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), ARB plus diuretic, ACEI plus calcium channel blocker, ARB plus calcium channel blocker, or ARB plus calcium channel blocker plus diuretic would also meet performance for this measure. Denominator Exception(s) are determined on the date of the denominator eligible encounter.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) therapy prescribed or currently being taken (G2092)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of medical reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., hypotensive patients who are at immediate risk of cardiogenic shock, hospitalized patients who have experienced marked azotemia, allergy, intolerance, other medical reasons) (G2093)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of patient reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., patient declined, other patient reasons) (G2094)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of system reason(s) for not prescribing ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy (e.g., other system reasons) (G2095)

OR

Performance Not Met: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) therapy was not prescribed, reason not given (G2096)

 

Rationale

In the absence of contraindications, ACE inhibitors or ARBs are recommended for all patients with symptoms of heart failure and reduced left ventricular systolic function. ACE inhibitors remain the first choice for inhibition of the reninangiotensin system in chronic heart failure, but ARBs can now be considered a reasonable alternative. Both pharmacologic agents have been shown to decrease the risk of death and hospitalization. Additional benefits of ACE inhibitors include the alleviation of symptoms and the improvement of clinical status and overall sense of well-being of patients with heart failure.


Clinical Recommendation Statements

The use of ACE inhibitors is beneficial for patients with prior or current symptoms of chronic HFrEF to reduce morbidity and mortality (Class I, Level of Evidence A) (ACCF/AHA/HFSA, 2017).

Treatment with an ACE inhibitor should be initiated at low doses [see excerpt from guideline table below], followed by gradual dose increments if lower doses have been well tolerated… Clinicians should attempt to use doses that have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical trials. If these target doses of an ACE inhibitor cannot be used or are poorly tolerated, intermediate doses should be used with the expectation that there are likely to be only small differences in efficacy between low and high doses. Abrupt withdrawal of treatment with an ACE inhibitor can lead to clinical deterioration and should be avoided (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

Drugs Commonly Used for Stage C HFrEF (abbreviated to align with focus of measure to include only ACE inhibitors and ARB therapy)

Table 1 - Drugs Commonly Used for Stage C HFrEF. Rows 3 - 10 define ACE Inhibitors. Rows 12-14 define ARB Therapy

DrugInitial Daily Dose(s)Maximum Dose(s)Mean Doses Achieved in Clinical Trials
ACE Inhibitors   
Captopril6.25 mg 3 times50 mg 3 times122.7 mg/d
Enalapril2.5 mg twice10 to 20 mg twice16.6 mg/d
Fosinopril5 to 10 mg once40 mg onceN/A
Lisinopril2.5 to 5 mg once20 to 40 mg once32.5 to 35.0 mg/d
Perindopril2 mg once8 to 16 mg onceN/A
Quinapril5 mg twice20 mg twiceN/A
Ramipril1.25 to 2.5 mg once10 mg onceN/A
Trandolapril1 mg once4 mg onceN/A
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers   
Candesartan4 to 8 mg once32 mg once24 mg/d
Losartan25 to 50 mg once50 to 150 mg once129 mg/d
Valsartan20 to 40 mg twice160 mg twice254 mg/d

The use of ARBs to reduce morbidity and mortality is recommended in patients with current or prior symptoms of chronic HFrEF who are intolerant to ACE inhibitors because of cough or angioedema (Class I, Level of Evidence A) (ACCF/AHA/HFSA, 2017).

ARBs are reasonable to reduce morbidity and mortality as alternatives to ACE inhibitors as first-line therapy for patients with HFrEF, especially for patients already taking ARBs for other indications, unless contraindicated (Class IIa, Level of Evidence: A) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

Addition of an ARB may be considered in persistently symptomatic patients with HFrEF who are already being treated with an ACE inhibitor and a beta blocker in whom an aldosterone antagonist is not indicated or tolerated (Class IIb, Level of Evidence: A) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

The clinical strategy of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors (Level of Evidence A), or ARBs (Level of Evidence A) or ARNI (Level of Evidence B-R) in conjunction with evidence-based beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists in selected patients, is recommended for patients with chronic HFrEF to reduce morbidity and mortality (Class I) (ACCF/AHA/HFSA, 2017).

In patients with chronic symptomatic HFrEF class II or III who tolerate an ACE inhibitor or ARB, replacement an ARNI is recommended to further reduce morbidity and mortality (Class I, Level of Evidence: B-R).

ARNI should not be administered concomitantly with ACE inhibitors or within 36 hours of the last dose of an ACE inhibitor (Class III, Level of Evidence B-R) (ACCF/AHA/HFSA, 2017).

ARNI should not be administered to patients with a history of angioedema (Class III Recommendation, Level of Evidence C-EO) ACCF/AHA/HFSA, 2017).

For the hospitalized patient:
In patients with HFrEF experiencing a symptomatic exacerbation of HF requiring hospitalization during chronic maintenance treatment with GDMT [guideline-directed medical therapy; GDMT represents optimal medical therapy as defined by ACCF/AHA guideline-recommended therapies (primarily Class I)], it is recommended that GDMT be continued in the absence of hemodynamic instability or contraindications (Class I, Level of Evidence: B) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

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