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2020 MIPS Measure #023: Perioperative Care: Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis (When Indicated in ALL Patients)

Quality ID 023
NQF 0239
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Process
Specialty General Surgery Neurosurgery Orthopedic Surgery Otolaryngology Plastic Surgery Thoracic Surgery Urology Vascular Surgery

Measure Description

Percentage of surgical patients aged 18 years and older undergoing procedures for which venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is indicated in all patients, who had an order for Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH), Low- Dose Unfractionated Heparin (LDUH), adjusted-dose warfarin, fondaparinux or mechanical prophylaxis to be given within 24 hours prior to incision time or within 24 hours after surgery end time

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted each time a procedure is performed during the performance period for all patients who undergo surgical procedures for which VTE prophylaxis is indicated. There is no diagnosis associated with this measure. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the listed surgical procedures as specified in the denominator coding will submit this measure.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

All surgical patients aged 18 years and older undergoing procedures for which VTE prophylaxis is indicated in all patients

Denominator Instructions:

CPT Category I procedure codes billed by surgeons performing surgery on the same patient, submitted with modifier 62 (indicating two surgeons, i.e., dual procedures) will be included in the denominator population, therefore both surgeons will be fully accountable for the clinical action described in the measure.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Patient procedure during the performance period (CPT): Listed below are surgical procedures for which VTE prophylaxis is indicated

Table 1 - Surgical Procedures Codes

SURGICAL PROCEDURE

CPT CODE

Neurological Surgery

22551, 22554, 22558, 22600, 22612, 22630, 22633, 61313, 61315, 61510, 61512, 61518, 61548, 61697, 61700, 62223, 62230, 63015, 63020, 63030, 63042, 63045, 63046, 63047, 63056, 63075, 63081, 63267, 63276

Hip Reconstruction

27125, 27130, 27132, 27134, 27137, 27138

Knee Reconstruction

27440, 27441, 27442, 27443, 27445, 27446, 27447

Genitourinary Surgery

50020, 50220, 50225, 50230, 50234, 50236, 50240, 50543, 50545, 50546, 50547, 50548, 50715, 50722, 50725, 50727, 50728, 50760, 50770, 50780, 50782, 50783, 50785, 50800, 50810, 50815, 50820, 50947, 50948, 51550, 51555, 51565, 51570, 51575, 51580, 51585, 51590, 51595, 51596, 51597, 51800, 51820, 51900, 51920, 51925, 51960, 55810, 55812, 55815, 55821, 55831, 55840, 55842, 55845, 55866

Gynecologic Surgery

56630, 56631, 56632, 56633, 56634, 56637, 56640, 58150, 58152, 58180, 58200, 58210, 58240, 58260, 58262, 58263, 58267, 58270, 58275, 58280, 58285, 58290, 58291, 58292, 58293, 58294, 58951, 58953, 58954, 58956

Hip Fracture Surgery

27235, 27236, 27244, 27245, 27269

Le Fort Fractures

21346, 21347, 21348, 21422, 21423, 21432, 21433, 21435, 21436

Mandibular Fractures

21454, 21461, 21462, 21465, 21470

General Thoracic (Non-Cardiac)

0236T, 0505T, 21627, 21632, 21740, 21750, 21825, 31760, 31766, 31770, 31775, 31786, 31805, 32096, 32097, 32098, 32100, 32110, 32120, 32124, 32140, 32141, 32150, 32215, 32220, 32225, 32310, 32320, 32440, 32442, 32445, 32480, 32482, 32484, 32486, 32488, 32491, 32505, 32800, 32810, 32815, 32900, 32905, 32906, 32940, 33020, 33025, 33030, 33031, 33050, 33300, 33310, 33320, 34051, 35021, 35211, 35216, 35241, 35246, 35271, 35276, 35311, 35526, 37616, 38381, 39000, 39010, 39200, 39220, 39545, 39561, 64746

Laryngectomy

31360, 31365, 31367, 31368, 31370, 31375, 31380, 31382, 31390, 31395

Vascular

27880, 27881, 27882, 27884, 27886, 27888, 33361, 33362, 33363, 33364, 33365, 33366, 33877, 33880, 33881, 33883, 33886, 33889, 33891, 34701. 34702, 34703, 34704, 34705, 34706, 34707, 34708, 34710, 34830, 34831, 34832, 34841, 34842, 34843, 34844, 34845, 34846, 34847, 34848, 35011, 35013, 35081, 35082, 35091, 35092, 35102, 35103, 35131, 35141, 35142, 35151, 35152, 35206, 35266, 35301, 35363, 35371, 35372, 35512, 35521, 35522, 35523, 35525, 35533, 35537, 35538, 35539, 35540, 35556, 35558, 35565, 35566, 35570, 35571, 35583, 35585, 35587, 35601, 35606, 35612, 35616, 35621, 35623, 35626, 35631, 35632, 35633, 35634, 35636, 35637, 35638, 35642, 35645, 35646, 35647, 35650, 35654, 35656, 35661, 35663, 35665, 35666, 35671, 36830, 36902, 36905, 37224, 37225, 37226, 37227, 37228, 37229, 37230, 37231, 37246, 37248, 37617

Glossectomy

41130, 41135, 41140, 41145, 41150, 41153, 41155

Acoustic Neuroma

61520, 61526, 61530, 61591, 61595, 61596, 61598, 61606, 61616, 61618, 61520, 61526, 61530, 61591, 61595, 61596, 61598, 61606, 61616, 61618, 61619, 69720, 69955, 69960, 69970

General Surgery

15734, 15830, 15832, 15833, 15834, 15835, 15836, 15837, 19300, 19301, 19302, 19303, 19305, 19306, 19307, 19316, 19318, 19324, 19361, 19364, 19366, 19367, 19368, 19369, 19380, 27080, 27158, 27202, 27280, 27282, 38100, 38101, 38115, 38120, 38531, 38571, 38572, 38700, 38720, 38724, 38760, 38765, 38770, 38780, 39501, 39540, 39541, 39545, 39560, 39561, 43020, 43030, 43045, 43100, 43101, 43107, 43108, 43112, 43113, 43116, 43117, 43118, 43121, 43122, 43123, 43124, 43130, 43135, 43279, 43280, 43281, 43282, 43300, 43305, 43310, 43312, 43313, 43314, 43320, 43325, 43327, 43328, 43330, 43331, 43332, 43333, 43334, 43335, 43336, 43337, 43340, 43341, 43351, 43352, 43360, 43361, 43400, 43405, 43410, 43415, 43420, 43425, 43496, 43500, 43501, 43502, 43510, 43520, 43605, 43610, 43611, 43620, 43621, 43622, 43631, 43632, 43633, 43634, 43640, 43641, 43644, 43645, 43651, 43652, 43653, 43770, 43771, 43772, 43773, 43774, 43800, 43810, 43820, 43825, 43830, 43832, 43840, 43843, 43845, 43846, 43847, 43848, 43850, 43855, 43860, 43865, 43870, 43880, 43886, 43887, 43888, 44005, 44010, 44020, 44021, 44025, 44050, 44055, 44110, 44111, 44120, 44125, 44126, 44127, 44130, 44140, 44141, 44143, 44144, 44145, 44146, 44147, 44150, 44151, 44155, 44156, 44157, 44158, 44160, 44180, 44186, 44187, 44188, 44202, 44204, 44205, 44206, 44207, 44208, 44210, 44211, 44212, 44227, 44300, 44310, 44312, 44314, 44316, 44320, 44322, 44340, 44345, 44346, 44602, 44603, 44604, 44605, 44615, 44620, 44625, 44626, 44640, 44650, 44660, 44661, 44680, 44700, 44800, 44820, 44850, 44900, 44950, 44960, 44970, 45000, 45020, 45100, 45108, 45110, 45111, 45112, 45113, 45114, 45116, 45119, 45120, 45121, 45123, 45126, 45130, 45135, 45136, 45150, 45160, 45171, 45172, 45190, 45395, 45397, 45400, 45402, 45500, 45505, 45540, 45541, 45550, 45560, 45562, 45563, 45800, 45805, 45820, 45825, 46715, 46716, 46730, 46735, 46740, 46742, 46744, 46746, 46748, 46750, 46751, 46753, 46754, 46760, 46761, 47010, 47015, 47100, 47120, 47122, 47125, 47130, 47135, 47140, 47141, 47142, 47300, 47350, 47360, 47361, 47362, 47370, 47371, 47380, 47381, 47382, 47400, 47420, 47425, 47460, 47480, 47562, 47563, 47564, 47570, 47600, 47605, 47610, 47612, 47620, 47700, 47701, 47711, 47712, 47715, 47720, 47721, 47740, 47741, 47760, 47765, 47780, 47785, 47800, 47801, 47802, 47900, 48000, 48001, 48020, 48100, 48102, 48105, 48120, 48140, 48145, 48146, 48148, 48150, 48152, 48153, 48154, 48155, 48500, 48510, 48520, 48540, 48545, 48547, 48548, 48554, 48556, 49000, 49002, 49010, 49020, 49040, 49060, 49203, 49204, 49205, 49215, 49220, 49250, 49255, 49320, 49321, 49322, 49323, 49405, 49406, 49407, 49505, 49507, 49560, 49561, 49565, 49566, 49570, 50320, 50340, 50360, 50365, 50370, 50380, 60200, 60210, 60212, 60220, 60225, 60240, 60252, 60254, 60260, 60270, 60271, 60280, 60281, 60500, 60502, 60505, 60520, 60521, 60522, 60540, 60545, 60600, 60605, 60650

 

Numerator

Surgical patients who had an order for LMWH, LDUH, adjusted-dose warfarin, fondaparinux or mechanical prophylaxis to be given within 24 hours prior to incision time or within 24 hours after surgery end time

Definition:

Mechanical Prophylaxis – Does not include TED hose.

Numerator Instructions:

There must be documentation of order (written order, verbal order, or standing order/protocol) for VTE prophylaxis OR documentation that VTE prophylaxis was given.

NUMERATOR NOTE: A single CPT Category II code is provided for VTE prophylaxis ordered or VTE prophylaxis given. If VTE prophylaxis is given, report 4044F.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Documentation that an order was given for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis to be given within 24 hours prior to incision time or 24 hours after surgery end time (4044F)

OR

Denominator Exception: Documentation of medical reason(s) for patient not receiving any form of VTE prophylaxis (LMWH, LDUH, adjusted-dose warfarin, fondaparinux or mechanical prophylaxis) within 24 hours prior to incision time or 24 hours after surgery end time (4044F with 1P)

OR

Performance Not Met: Order was not given for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis to be given within 24 hours prior to incision time or 24 hours after surgery end time, reason not otherwise specified (4044F with 8P)

 

Rationale

This measure addresses VTE risk based on surgical procedure. VTE prophylaxis is appropriate for all patients undergoing these procedures regardless of individual patient thromboembolic risk factors.

Duration of VTE prophylaxis is not specified in the measure due to varying guideline recommendations for different patient populations.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at very low risk for VTE (< 0.5%; Rogers score, < 7; Caprini score, 0), we recommend that no specific pharmacologic (Grade 1B) or mechanical (Grade 2C) prophylaxis be used other than early ambulation. (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at low risk for VTE (~ 1.5%; Rogers score, 7-10; Caprini score, 1- 2), we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), over no prophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at moderate risk for VTE (~ 3.0%; Rogers score, > 10; Caprini score, 3-4) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we suggest LMWH (Grade 2B), LDUH (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC (Grade 2C), over no prophylaxis. (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at moderate risk for VTE (3.0%; Rogers score, > 10; Caprini score, 3-4) who are at high risk for major bleeding complications or those in whom the consequences of bleeding are thought to be particularly severe, we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at high risk for VTE (~ 6.0%; Caprini score, ≥ 5) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis with LMWH (Grade 1B) or LDUH (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. We suggest that mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings or IPC should be added to pharmacologic prophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For high-VTE-risk patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer who are not otherwise at high risk for major bleeding complications, we recommend extended-duration pharmacologic prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWH over limited-duration prophylaxis. (Grade 1B) (ACCP, 2012)

For high-VTE-risk general and abdominal pelvic surgery patients who are at high risk for major bleeding complications or those in whom the consequences of bleeding are thought to be particularly severe, we suggest use of mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis until the risk of bleeding diminishes and pharmacologic prophylaxis may be initiated. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients at high risk for VTE (6%; Caprini score, ≥ 5) in whom both LMWH and unfractionated heparin are contraindicated or unavailable and who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we suggest low-dose aspirin (Grade 2C), fondaparinux (Grade 2C), or mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC (Grade 2C), over no prophylaxis. (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients, we suggest that an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter should not be used for primary VTE prevention. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For general and abdominal-pelvic surgery patients, we suggest that periodic surveillance with venous compression ultrasound should not be performed. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For cardiac surgery patients with an uncomplicated postoperative course, we suggest use of mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with optimally applied IPC, over either no prophylaxis (Grade 2C) or pharmacologic prophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For thoracic surgery patients at moderate risk for VTE who are not at high risk for perioperative bleeding, we suggest LDUH (Grade 2B), LMWH (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis with optimally applied IPC (Grade 2C) over no prophylaxis. (ACCP, 2012)

For thoracic surgery patients at high risk for VTE who are not at high risk for perioperative bleeding, we suggest LDUH (Grade 1B) or LMWH (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. In addition, we suggest that mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings or IPC should be added to pharmacologic prophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For thoracic surgery patients who are at high risk for major bleeding, we suggest use of mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with optimally applied IPC, over no prophylaxis until the risk of bleeding diminishes and pharmacologic prophylaxis may be initiated. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For craniotomy patients, we suggest that mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, be used over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C) or pharmacologic prophylaxis (Grade 2C). (ACCP, 2012)

For craniotomy patients at very high risk for VTE (e.g., those undergoing craniotomy for malignant disease), we suggest adding pharmacologic prophylaxis to mechanical prophylaxis once adequate hemostasis is established and the risk of bleeding decreases. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For patients undergoing spinal surgery, we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C), unfractionated heparin (Grade 2C), or LMWH. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For patients undergoing spinal surgery at high risk for VTE (including those with malignant disease or those undergoing surgery with a combined anterior-posterior approach), we suggest adding pharmacologic prophylaxis to mechanical prophylaxis once adequate hemostasis is established and the risk of bleeding decreases. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For major trauma patients, we suggest use of LDUH (Grade 2C), LMWH (Grade 2C), or mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC (Grade 2C), over no prophylaxis. (ACCP, 2012)

For major trauma patients at high risk for VTE (including those with acute spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and spinal surgery for trauma), we suggest adding mechanical prophylaxis to pharmacologic prophylaxis (Grade 2C) when not contraindicated by lower extremity injury. (ACCP, 2012)

For major trauma patients in whom LMWH and LDUH are contraindicated, we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C) when not contraindicated by lower-extremity injury. We suggest adding pharmacologic prophylaxis with either LMWH or LDUH when the risk of bleeding diminishes or the contraindication to heparin resolves. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For major trauma patients, we suggest that an IVC filter should not be used for primary VTE prevention. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012) For major trauma patients, we suggest that periodic surveillance with venous compression ultrasound should not be performed. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing THA or TKA, we recommend use of one of the following for a minimum of 10 to 14 days rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis: low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), adjusted-dose VKA, aspirin (all Grade 1B), or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) (Grade 1C). (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing HFS, we recommend use of one of the following rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis for a minimum of 10 to 14 days: LMWH, fondaparinux, LDUH, adjusted-dose VKA, aspirin (all Grade 1B), or an IPCD. (Grade 1C) (ACCP, 2012)

For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (THA, TKA, HFS) and receiving LMWH as thromboprophylaxis, we recommend starting either 12 h or more preoperatively or 12 h or more postoperatively rather than within 4 h or less preoperatively or 4 h or less postoperatively. (Grade 1B) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing THA or TKA, irrespective of the concomitant use of an IPCD or length of treatment, we suggest the use of LMWH in preference to the other agents we have recommended as alternatives: fondaparinux, apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, LDUH (all Grade 2B), adjusted-dose VKA, or aspirin. (all Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing HFS, irrespective of the concomitant use of an IPCD or length of treatment, we suggest the use of LMWH in preference to the other agents we have recommended as alternatives: fondaparinux, LDUH (Grade 2B), adjusted-dose VKA, or aspirin. (all Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we suggest extending thromboprophylaxis in the outpatient period for up to 35 days from the day of surgery rather than for only 10 to 14 days. (Grade 2B) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we suggest using dual prophylaxis with an antithrombotic agent and an IPCD during the hospital stay. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and increased risk of bleeding, we suggest using an IPCD or no prophylaxis rather than pharmacologic treatment. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and who decline or are uncooperative with injections or an IPCD, we recommend using apixaban or dabigatran (alternatively rivaroxaban or adjusted-dose VKA if apixaban or dabigatran are unavailable) rather than alternative forms of prophylaxis. (all Grade 1B) (ACCP, 2012)

In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we suggest against using IVC filter placement for primary prevention over no thromboprophylaxis in patients with an increased bleeding risk or contraindications to both pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For asymptomatic patients following major orthopedic surgery, we recommend against Doppler (or duplex) ultrasound screening before hospital discharge. (Grade 1B) (ACCP, 2012)

We suggest no prophylaxis rather than pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in patients with isolated lower-leg injuries requiring leg immobilization. (Grade 2C) (ACCP, 2012)

For patients undergoing knee arthroscopy without a history of prior VTE, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis rather than prophylaxis. (Grade 2B) (ACCP, 2012)

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