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2021 MIPS Measure #116: Avoidance of Antibiotic Treatment in Adults With Acute Bronchitis

Quality ID 116
NQF 0058
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Process
Specialty Emergency Medicine Family Medicine Internal Medicine Pediatrics Preventive Medicine Urgent Care

Measure Description

The percentage of episodes for patients ages 3 months and older with a diagnosis of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis that did not result in an antibiotic dispensing event.

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted at each occurrence of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis during the performance period. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (e.g., encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, or POS 02 modifiers) are allowable.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

All patients aged 3 months or older with an outpatient visit, telephone visit, online assessment, observation visit or emergency department (ED) visit with a diagnosis of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis during the measurement period

DENOMINATOR NOTE:

Do not include outpatient, ED or observation visits that result in an inpatient admission. When an outpatient, ED or observation visit and an inpatient stay are billed on separate claims, the visit results in an inpatient stay when the outpatient/ED/observation date of service occurs on the day prior to the admission date or any time during the admission (admission date through discharge date). An outpatient, ED or observation visit billed on the same claim as an inpatient stay is considered a visit that resulted in an inpatient stay.

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients 3 months of age and older on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (ICD-10-CM): J20.3, J20.4, J20.5, J20.6, J20.7, J20.8, J20.9, J21.0, J21.1, J21.8, J21.9

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT or HCPCS): 98966, 98967, 98968, 98969, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99211, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99217, 99218, 99219, 99220, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99281, 99282, 99283, 99284, 99285, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350, 99381*, 99382*, 99383*, 99384*, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99391*, 99392*, 99393*, 99394*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, 99401*, 99402*, 99403*, 99404*, 99411*, 99412*, 99429*, 99441, 99442, 99443, 99444, 99455, 99456, 99483, G0402, G0438, G0439, G0463*, T1015*

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSIONS:

Outpatient, ED or Observation visits that result in an inpatient admission G2176

OR

Acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis episodes when the patient had a new or refill prescription of antibiotics (Table 1) in the 30 days prior to or on the episode date. G2177

OR

Documentation of medical reason(s) for prescribing or dispensing antibiotic (e.g., intestinal infection, pertussis, bacterial infection, Lyme disease, otitis media, acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, chronic sinusitis, infection of the pharynx/larynx/tonsils/adenoids, prostatitis, cellulitis/ mastoiditis/bone infections, acute lymphadenitis, impetigo, skin staph infections, pneumonia, gonococcal infections/venereal disease (syphilis, chlamydia, inflammatory diseases [female reproductive organs]), infections of the kidney, cystitis/UTI, acne, HIV disease/asymptomatic HIV, cystic fibrosis, disorders of the immune system, malignancy neoplasms, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, chronic airway obstruction, chronic obstructive asthma, pneumoconiosis and other lung disease due to external agents, other diseases of the respiratory system, and tuberculosis: G9712

OR

Patients who use hospice services any time during the measurement period: G9713

 

Numerator

Patients who were not prescribed or dispensed antibiotics (Table 1) on or within 3 days of the initial date of service

Numerator Instructions:

For performance, the measure will be calculated as the number of patient encounters where antibiotics were neither prescribed nor dispensed on or within 3 days of the episode for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis over the total number of encounters in the denominator (patients aged 3 months and older with an outpatient, telephone, online assessment, observation or ED visit for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis). A higher score indicates appropriate treatment of patients with acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (e.g., the proportion for whom antibiotics were not prescribed or dispensed on or three days after the encounter). Delayed prescriptions (where an antibiotic was prescribed and patient was instructed to delay taking the antibiotic) are considered “Performance Not Met”.

Table 1 – Antibiotic Medications
Note: This list should be used when assessing antibiotic prescriptions for the denominator exclusion and numerator components.

Description

Prescription

 

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin
Tobramycin
Gentamicin

Streptomycin

Aminopenicillins

Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Beta-lactamase inhibitors

Amoxicillin-clavulanate
Ampicillin- sulbactam 

Piperacillin-tazobactam
Ticarcillin-clavulanate

First-generation cephalosporins

Cefadroxil
Cephalexin

Cefazolin

Fourth-generation cephalosporins

Cefepime

 

Ketolides

Telithromycin

 

Lincomycin derivatives

Clindamycin
Lincomycin

 

Macrolides

Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Erythromycin stearate

Erythromycin
Erythromycin ethylsuccinate
Erythromycin lactobionate

Miscellaneous antibiotics

Aztreonam
Chloramphenicol
Vancomycin
Dalfopristin-quinupristin
Linezolid

Daptomycin
Metronidazole
Erythromycin-sulfisoxazole

Natural penicillins

Penicillin G sodium benzathineprocaine
Penicillin G potassium
Penicillin G procaine

Penicillin G sodium
Penicillin V potassium
Penicillin G benzathine 

Penicillinase resistant penicillins

Dicloxacillin
Oxacillin

Nafcillin

Quinolones

Ciprofloxacin
Gemifloxacin
Ofloxacin

Levofloxacin
Moxifloxacin

Rifamycin derivatives

Rifampin

 

Second generation cephalosporin

Cefaclor
Cefotetan
Cefprozil

Cefoxitin
Cefuroxime

Sulfonamides

Sulfadiazine

Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim

Tetracyclines

Doxycycline
Tetracycline

Minocycline

Third generation cephalosporins

Cefdinir
Cefditoren
Cefpodoxime
Cefixim

Cefotaxime
Ceftibuten
Ceftriaxone
Ceftazidime

Urinary anti-infectives

Fosfomycin
Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals
Trimethoprim

Nitrofurantoin
Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals- monohydrate

 

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Antibiotic neither prescribed nor dispensed (4124F)

OR

Performance Not Met: Antibiotic prescribed or dispensed (4120F)

 

Rationale

Antibiotics are commonly misused and overused for a number of viral respiratory conditions where antibiotic treatment is not clinically indicated. (Scott J.G., D. Cohen, B. Dicicco-Bloom, 2001) About 80 percent of antibiotics prescribed for acute respiratory infections in adults are unnecessary, according to CDC prevention guidelines. In adults, antibiotics are most often (65–80 percent) prescribed for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis, despite its viral origin. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics contributes to antibiotic drug resistance, which is of public health concern due to the diminished efficacy of antibiotics against bacterial infections, particularly in sick patients and the elderly. (Austin D.J., Kristinsson, R.M. Anderson, 1999, Patterson, JE, 2001, Cohen ML, 1992, Lipsitch M, 2001)

A HEDIS measure that highlights inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in adults for a common respiratory condition will help to raise awareness among clinicians and patients about inappropriate antibiotic use. Antibiotics are most often inappropriately prescribed in adults with acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. This measure builds on an existing HEDIS measure targeting inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for members with upper respiratory infection (common cold), where antibiotics are also most often inappropriately prescribed. (Chandran R., 2001, Gonzales R., J.F. Steiner, et al, 1999)

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

Clinical guidelines do not support antibiotic treatment of otherwise healthy adults with acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis due to the viral origin of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or other chronic comorbidity may be treated with antibiotics and are therefore excluded from the measure denominator. (Gonzales R., D.C. Malone, J.H. Maselli, et al, 2001)

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