2024 MIPS Measure #389: Cataract Surgery: Difference Between Planned and Final Refraction

Quality ID 389
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Outcome
Specialty Ophthalmology

Measure Description

Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older who had cataract surgery performed and who achieved a final refraction within +/- 1.0 diopters of their planned (target) refraction.



This measure is to be submitted each time a cataract procedure is performed during the performance period. This measure is intended to reflect the quality of services provided for the patient receiving cataract surgery.

Note: This is an outcome measure and will be calculated solely using Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinician, group, or third-party intermediary submitted data.

  • • For patients who receive the surgical procedures specified in the denominator coding, it should be reported whether or not the patient had a difference between planned and final refraction.
  • • Include only procedures performed through September 30 of the performance period. This will allow the post-operative period to occur before third-party intermediaries must submit data to CMS.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions allowed by the measure. The quality data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third-party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.



All patients aged 18 years and older who had cataract surgery

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter


Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT): 66840, 66850, 66852, 66920, 66930, 66940, 66982, 66983, 66984, 66987, 66988, 66989, 66991


Modifier: 55 or 56


Telehealth Modifier (including but not limited to): GQ, GT, 95, POS 02, POS 10



Patients who achieved a final refraction (spherical equivalent) of +/- 1.0 diopters of their planned (target) refraction (spherical equivalent) within 90 days following cataract surgery. The refraction planned and final refraction values should correspond to the eye that underwent the cataract procedure.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Patient achieves final refraction (spherical equivalent) +/- 1.0 diopters of their planned refraction within 90 days of surgery (G9519)


Performance Not Met: Patient does not achieve final refraction (spherical equivalent) +/- 1.0 diopters of their planned refraction within 90 days of surgery (G9520)



Refractive outcome is important to the patient and to the surgeon. Planned refraction is something the surgeon and patient discuss at the time of assessment for cataract surgery and is a way to align patient and surgeon expectations of the outcome. The surgeon should consider the patient’s desires and needs when selecting a postoperative refractive target outcome. Comparing actual outcome to predicted outcome is a valuable measure of success.

Results of multiple large studies of cataract surgery have repeatedly demonstrated positive outcomes. The ASCRS National Cataract Database reported that at 3 months postoperatively 74.6% of patients were within ±1.0 D of target spherical equivalent. The American Academy of Ophthalmology National Eyecare Outcomes Network (NEON) database (n=7626) also found similar rates of success, with 78% of patients within ± 1.0 D of target spherical equivalent. Kugelberg and Lundstrom published outcomes data from the Swedish registry and found in routine cataract surgeries 75% to 90% of patients ended up with refraction within 1 diopter of the target refraction. The study describes factors that influenced refractive outcome as older age and use of a clear corneal incision. Another 2009 study by Gale and colleagues reported outcomes improving from 79.7% to 87% within 3 measurement cycles and the authors suggested that a benchmark standard of 85% be established. The European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) study compared 2814 consecutive cases from high-volume surgeons with 4987 control patients matched by characteristics such as age, preoperative CDVA, ocular comorbidities, and surgical comorbidities from the 2014 European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery. The mean refractive error was 0.40 D versus 0.43 D for FLACS, P < 0.05, with 74.3% of control eyes being within 0.5 D and 94.1% being within 1 D of target.


Miller KM, Oetting TA, Tweeten JP et al; American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern Cataract/Anterior Segment Panel. Cataract in the Adult Eye Preferred Practice Pattern. Ophthalmology. 2022;129:P1-P126.

Lum F, Schein O, Schachat AP, Abbott RL, Hoskins HD, Steinberg EP. Initial two years of experience with the AAO Nation Eyecare Outcomes Network (NEON) cataract surgery database. Ophthalmology 2000; 107:691-97

Gale, RP, Johnston, RL, Zuberbuhler, B, McKibbin, M. Benchmark standards for refractive Outcomes After Cataract Surgery, Eye (London) 2009 Jan; 23 (1):149-52

Kugelberg M, Lundstrom M. Factors related to the degree of success in achieving target refraction in cataract surgery. J Cat Refr Surg 2008; 34(11):1935-39

Manning S, Barry P, Henry Y, et al. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery versus standard phacoemulsification cataract surgery: Study from the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;42:1779-1790


Clinical Recommendation Statements

This is an outcome measure. As such, no clinical recommendations are included.

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