2024 MIPS Measure #478: Functional Status Change for Patients with Neck Impairments

Quality ID 478
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Outcome
Specialty Chiropractic Medicine Orthopedic Surgery Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy

Measure Description

A patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of risk-adjusted change in functional status (FS) for patients 14 years+ with neck impairments. The change in FS is assessed using the FOTO Neck FS PROM. The measure is adjusted to patient characteristics known to be associated with FS outcomes (risk-adjusted) and used as a performance measure at the patient, individual clinician, and clinic levels to assess quality.



This outcome measure is to be submitted once per Treatment Episode for all patients with a functional deficit related to the neck. This measure is intended for patients with neck impairments. This is an outcome measure, and its calculation requires submitting of the patient’s FS PROM score, at a minimum, at the start (Initial Evaluation or Intake) and again at the conclusion (Discharge) of a Treatment Episode. The Initial Evaluation score is recorded during the first treatment encounter, and the Discharge score is recorded at or near the conclusion of the final treatment encounter. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians providing treatment for functional neck deficits will submit this measure.


Functional Deficit – Limitation or impairment of physical abilities/function resulting in evaluation and inclusion in a treatment plan of care.

Treatment Episode – A “Treatment Episode” is defined as beginning with an Initial Evaluation for a functional neck deficit, progressing through treatment without interruption (for example, a hospitalization or surgical intervention), and ending with Discharge signifying that the treatment has been completed. A patient currently under clinical care for a neck deficit remains in a single “Treatment Episode” until the Discharge is conducted and documented by the MIPS eligible clinician.

Initial Evaluation – An “Initial Evaluation” is the first encounter for a functional deficit involving the neck and includes an evaluation (CPT 97161, 97162, 97163, 97165, 97166, 97167, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 98940, 98941, 98942, 98943*, 99304, 99305, or 99306), or an “Initial Evaluation” Status M-code (M1143). A patient presenting with a neck impairment, who has had an interruption of a Treatment Episode for the same functional neck deficit secondary to an appropriate reason like hospitalization or surgical intervention, is an “Initial Evaluation.”

Discharge – “Discharge” is accompanied by a treatment finalization and evaluation completion M-Code (M1009) identifying the close of a Treatment Episode for the same neck deficit identified at the Initial Evaluation and documented by a “Discharge” report by the MIPS eligible clinician. An interruption in clinical care for an appropriate reason like hospitalization or surgical intervention requires a discharge from the current Treatment Episode.

Encounter – A visit between the patient and the provider for the purpose of assessing and/or improving a functional deficit.

Patient Reported – The patient directly provides answers to the FS PROM items. If the patient cannot reliably respond independently (e.g., in the presence of cognitive deficits), a suitable proxy may provide answers.

Neck FS PROM score – The “Neck FS PROM score” may be achieved using one of three forms: the FOTO Neck FS PROM computer adaptive test the FOTO Neck FS PROM short form, or an alternative PROM score that is cross-walked to the Neck FS PROM, using a cross-walk form developed by the measure steward. Computer adaptive test (CAT) is recommended to achieve best balance between reduced patient burden and score precision. At least one cross-walk form has been developed by the measure steward and meets scientific standards to successfully link a construct-equivalent PROM using advanced psychometric equating methods.

For more information about the Neck FS PROM score forms and to access the components that are available free of charge for use with this MIPS quality measure [e.g., patient-reported outcome measure(s), cross-walking, risk adjustment], visit Public Access to FOTO Measures.

NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (including but not limited to encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, POS 02, POS 10) are allowable.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third-party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.



All patients aged 14 years and older with neck impairments who initiated a Treatment Episode

DENOMINATOR NOTE: *Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

All patients aged >14 years on date of Initial Evaluation


Patient encounter during the performance period identifying evaluation (CPT or M-code): 97161, 97162, 97163, 97165, 97166, 97167, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 98940, 98941, 98942, 98943*, 99304, 99305, 99306, M1143


With a neck impairment and/or diagnosis pertaining to a functional deficit affecting the neck (ICD-10-CM): G54.0, G54.2, M40.03, M40.12, M40.13, M40.202, M40.203, M41.122, M41.123, M41.22, M41.23, M41.41, M41.42, M41.43, M41.52, M41.53, M41.82, M41.83, M42.01, M42.02, M42.03, M42.11, M42.12, M42.13, M43.01, M43.02, M43.03, M43.11, M43.12, M43.13, M43.21, M43.22, M43.23, M43.3, M43.4, M43.5X2, M43.5X3, M43.6, M43.8X1, M43.8X2, M43.8X3, M45.A1, M45.A2, M45.A3, M45.1, M45.2, M45.3, M46.01, M46.02, M46.03, M46.21, M46.22, M46.23, M46.31, M46.32, M46.33, M46.41, M46.42, M46.43, M46.51, M46.52, M46.53, M46.81, M46.82, M46.83, M46.91, M46.92, M46.93, M47.11, M47.12, M47.13, M47.21, M47.22, M47.23, M47.811, M47.812, M47.813, M47.891, M47.892, M47.893, M48.01, M48.02, M48.03, M48.11, M48.12, M48.13, M48.21, M48.22, M48.23, M48.31, M48.32, M48.33, M48.41XD, M48.41XG, M48.41XS, M48.42XD, M48.42XG, M48.42XS, M48.43XD, M48.43XG, M48.43XS, M48.51XD, M48.51XG, M48.51XS, M48.52XD, M48.52XG, M48.52XS, M48.53XD, M48.53XG, M48.53XS, M48.8X1, M48.8X2, M48.8X3, M49.81, M49.82, M49.83, M50.01, M50.020, M50.021, M50.022, M50.023, M50.03, M50.11, M50.120, M50.121, M50.122, M50.123, M50.13, M50.21, M50.220, M50.221, M50.222, M50.223, M50.23, M50.31, M50.320, M50.321, M50.322, M50.323, M50.33, M50.81, M50.820, M50.821, M50.822, M50.823, M50.83, M50.91, M50.920, M50.921, M50.922, M50.923, M50.93, M53.0, M53.1, M53.2X1, M53.2X2, M53.2X3, M53.81, M53.82, M53.83, M54.11, M54.12, M54.13, M54.2, M54.01, M54.02, M54.03, M95.3, M99.01, M99.11, M99.21, M99.31, M99.41, M99.51, M99.61, M99.71, M99.81, P14.3, Q76.1, Q76.411, Q76.412, Q76.413, Q76.5, S12.000D, S12.000G, S12.000K, S12.000S, S12.001D, S12.001G, S12.001K, S12.001S, S12.01XD, S12.01XG, S12.01XK, S12.01XS, S12.02XD, S12.02XG, S12.02XK, S12.02XS, S12.030D, S12.030G, S12.030K, S12.030S, S12.031D, S12.031G, S12.031K, S12.031S, S12.040D, S12.040G, S12.040K, S12.040S, S12.041D, S12.041G, S12.041K, S12.041S, S12.090D, S12.090G, S12.090K, S12.090S, S12.091D, S12.091G, S12.091K, S12.091S, S12.100D, S12.100G, S12.100K, S12.100S, S12.101D, S12.101G, S12.101K, S12.101S, S12.110D, S12.110G, S12.110K, S12.110S, S12.111D, S12.111G, S12.111K, S12.111S, S12.112D, S12.112G, S12.112K, S12.112S, S12.120D, S12.120G, S12.120K, S12.120S, S12.121D, S12.121G, S12.121K, S12.121S, S12.130D, S12.130G, S12.130K, S12.130S, S12.131D, S12.131G, S12.131K, S12.131S, S12.14XD, S12.14XG, S12.14XK, S12.14XS, S12.150A, S12.150B, S12.150D, S12.150G, S12.150K, S12.150S, S12.151D, S12.151G, S12.151K, S12.151S, S12.190D, S12.190G, S12.190K, S12.190S, S12.191D, S12.191G, S12.191K, S12.191S, S12.200D, S12.200G, S12.200K, S12.200S, S12.201D, S12.201G, S12.201K, S12.201S, S12.230D, S12.230G, S12.230K, S12.230S, S12.231D, S12.231G, S12.231K, S12.231S, S12.24XD, S12.24XG, S12.24XK, S12.24XS, S12.250D, S12.250G, S12.250K, S12.250S, S12.251D, S12.251G, S12.251K, S12.251S, S12.290D, S12.290G, S12.290K, S12.290S, S12.291D, S12.291G, S12.291K, S12.291S, S12.300D, S12.300G, S12.300K, S12.300S, S12.301D, S12.301G, S12.301K, S12.301S, S12.330D, S12.330G, S12.330K, S12.330S, S12.331D, S12.331G, S12.331K, S12.331S, S12.34XD, S12.34XG, S12.34XK, S12.34XS, S12.350D, S12.350G, S12.350K, S12.350S, S12.351D, S12.351G, S12.351K, S12.351S, S12.390D, S12.390G, S12.390K, S12.390S, S12.391D, S12.391G, S12.391K, S12.391S, S12.400D, S12.400G, S12.400K, S12.400S, S12.401D, S12.401G, S12.401K, S12.401S, S12.430D, S12.430G, S12.430K, S12.430S, S12.431D, S12.431G, S12.431K, S12.431S, S12.44XD, S12.44XG, S12.44XK, S12.44XS, S12.450D, S12.450G, S12.450K, S12.450S, S12.451D, S12.451G, S12.451K, S12.451S, S12.490D, S12.490G, S12.490K, S12.490S, S12.491D, S12.491G, S12.491K, S12.491S, S12.500D, S12.500G, S12.500K, S12.500S, S12.501D, S12.501G, S12.501K, S12.501S, S12.530D, S12.530G, S12.530K, S12.530S, S12.531D, S12.531G, S12.531K, S12.531S, S12.54XD, S12.54XG, S12.54XK, S12.54XS, S12.550D, S12.550G, S12.550K, S12.550S, S12.551D, S12.551G, S12.551K, S12.551S, S12.590D, S12.590G, S12.590K, S12.590S, S12.591D, S12.591G, S12.591K, S12.591S, S12.600D, S12.600G, S12.600K, S12.600S, S12.601D, S12.601G, S12.601K, S12.601S, S12.630D, S12.630G, S12.630K, S12.630S, S12.631D, S12.631G, S12.631K, S12.631S, S12.64XD, S12.64XG, S12.64XK, S12.64XS, S12.650D, S12.650G, S12.650K, S12.650S, S12.651D, S12.651G, S12.651K, S12.651S, S12.690D, S12.690G, S12.690K, S12.690S, S12.691D, S12.691G, S12.691K, S12.691S, S12.8XXD, S12.8XXS, S12.9XXD, S12.9XXS, S13.0XXD, S13.0XXS, S13.100D, S13.100S, S13.101D, S13.101S, S13.110D, S13.110S, S13.111D, S13.111S, S13.120D, S13.120S, S13.121D, S13.121S, S13.130D, S13.130S, S13.131D, S13.131S, S13.140D, S13.140S, S13.141D, S13.141S, S13.150D, S13.150S, S13.151D, S13.151S, S13.160D, S13.160S, S13.161D, S13.161S, S13.170D, S13.170S, S13.171D, S13.171S, S13.180D, S13.180S, S13.181D, S13.181S, S13.29XD, S13.29XS, S13.4XXA, S13.4XXD, S13.4XXS, S13.5XXA, S13.5XXD, S13.5XXS, S13.8XXA, S13.8XXD, S13.8XXS, S14.0XXD, S14.0XXS, S14.2XXD, S14.2XXS, S14.3XXD, S14.3XXS, S14.4XXD, S14.4XXS, S14.5XXD, S14.5XXS, S14.8XXD, S14.8XXS, S14.9XXD, S14.9XXS, S16.1XXA, S16.1XXD, S16.1XXS, S16.2XXA, S16.2XXD, S16.2XXS, S16.8XXA, S16.8XXD, S16.8XXS, S16.9XXA, S16.9XXD, S16.9XXS, S17.8XXA, S17.8XXD, S17.8XXS, S19.89XA, S19.89XD, S19.89XS, S19.9XXA, S19.9XXD, S19.9XXS


Discharge/discontinuation of the episode of care documented in the medical record (M-code): M1009



Documentation stating patient has a diagnosis of a degenerative neurological condition such as ALS, MS, or Parkinson’s diagnosed at any time before or during the episode of care: G2151


Patient unable to complete the Neck FS PROM at Initial Evaluation and/or Discharge due to blindness, illiteracy, severe mental incapacity or language incompatibility, and an adequate proxy is not available: M1149



Patients who were presented with the Neck FS PROM at Initial Evaluation (Intake) and at or near Discharge (Status) for the purpose of calculating the patient’s Residual Score.


Functional Status (FS) Score – This is the Neck FS PROM score as described under Instructions Definitions.

FS Change Score – The “FS Change Score” is calculated by subtracting the FS Score at Initial Evaluation from the FS Score at Discharge.

Predicted FS Change Score – The “Predicted FS Change Score” is calculated by accounting for the influence of multiple patient characteristics as designated by the risk adjustment model. For each patient completing the Neck FS PROM at Initial Evaluation (Intake), the predictive model provides a risk-adjusted prediction of FS change at Discharge.

Residual Score – The “Residual Score” is calculated by subtracting the Predicted FS Change Score from the FS Change Score (i.e., actual minus predicted). The “Residual Score”, which is in the same units as the FS Score, should be interpreted as the amount of FS change that is different than the amount of change that was predicted given the risk-adjustment variables of the patient being treated. Residual Scores of zero (0) or greater (> 0) should be interpreted as FS Change Scores that met or exceeded what was predicted. Residual Scores less than zero (< 0) should be interpreted as FS change scores that were less than predicted. Aggregated Residual Scores allow meaningful comparisons amongst clinicians or clinics.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Residual Score for the neck impairment successfully calculated and the score was equal to zero (0) or greater than zero (> 0) (G2152)


Denominator Exception: Ongoing care not clinically indicated because the patient needed a home program only, referral to another provider or facility, or consultation only, as documented in the medical record (M1146)


Denominator Exception: Ongoing care not medically possible because the patient was discharged early due to specific medical events, documented in the medical record, such as the patient became hospitalized or scheduled for surgery (M1147)


Denominator Exception: Ongoing care not possible because the patient selfdischarged early (e.g., financial or insurance reasons, transportation problems, or reason unknown) (M1148)


Denominator Exception: Patient refused to participate (G2209)


Performance Not Met: Residual Score for the neck impairment successfully calculated and the score was less than zero (< 0) (G2167)


Performance Not Met: Residual Score for the neck impairment not measured because the patient did not complete the Neck FS PROM at Initial Evaluation and/or near Discharge, reason not given (G2210)



Neck impairments provide a common reason for patients seeking care in healthcare settings. During 2017, the FOTO database recorded 414,436 episodes of care across multiple healthcare systems and clinics throughout the United States. Prevalence estimates from epidemiologic studies on neck pain (defined as pain in the neck, with or without pain referred into one or both upper limbs, that lasts for at least 1 day) have a mean 1-year prevalence range of 23%1 to 37%2 and a mean lifetime prevalence of 49%.2 Consequently, neck pain is recognized as a global health care burden.3,4 Assessment of functional status using PROMs in patients with neck pain is an essential step in addressing this burden, provided the scores can be interpreted in clinically useful ways to inform patient-centered clinical decision making.

The Neck FS PROM offers the advantages of modern scientific measurement methods like item response theory (IRT). IRT and related methods provide a number of measurement advantages including valid assumptions of interval scaling, superior scale coverage, uni-dimensionality for valid score change interpretations, and precise methods for evaluating components of the measures such as the functional questions and scales. IRT additionally forms the basis for computer adaptive testing (CAT) administration which reduces patient burden by minimizing the number of functional questions the patient must respond to in order to obtain a precise estimate of the patient’s functional ability level. When combined with robust risk adjustment to provide for fair comparisons between providers, the Neck FS PROM forms the basis for a valuable patient reported outcome performance measure (PRO-PM).

  1. Hoy DG, Protani M, De R, Buchbinder R. The epidemiology of neck pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:783-792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2011.01.019
  2. Fejer R, Kyvik KO, Hartvigsen J. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systematic critical review of the literature. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:834-848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-004-0864-4
  3. Hoy D, March L, Woolf A, et al. The global burden of neck pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:1309-1315. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204431
  4. Hurwitz EL, Randhawa K, Yu H, Côté P, Haldeman S. The Global Spine Care Initiative: a summary of the global burden of low back and neck pain studies. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:796-801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017- 5432-9


Clinical Recommendation Statements

PROMs are increasingly advocated as necessary components of an overall strategy to improve healthcare (Black 2013; Griggs et al. 2017) and are advocated for use in clinical decision making in clinical practice guidelines pertaining to neck impairments (Blanpied et al. 2017; Bier et al. 2018; Childs et al. 2008; Baisden et al. 2010; Bono et al. 2011). Placing risk-adjusted Neck FS PROM data directly into the hands of the provider embodies the definition of patientcentered healthcare and is consistent with National Quality Forum’s vision to achieve performance improvement and accountability through patient-reported outcomes (National Quality Forum 2013). This approach improves quality of care by promoting improved communication between provider and patient, and it enhances the provider’s understanding of the patient’s perception of functional status. The Neck FS PROM and PRO-PM results can be shared with the patient to further promote patient engagement.

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