2024 MIPS Measure #505: Reduction in Suicidal Ideation or Behavior Symptoms

Quality ID 505
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Outcome
Specialty Certified Nurse Midwife Clinical Social Work Family Medicine Mental/Behavioral Health Obstetrics/Gynecology

Measure Description

The percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a mental and/or substance use disorder AND suicidal thoughts, behaviors or risk symptoms who demonstrated a reduction in suicidal ideation and/or behavior symptoms based on results from the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale 'Screen Version' or 'Since Last Visit' (C-SSRS), within 120 days after an index assessment.

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for patients with mental and/or substance use disorder AND suicidal thoughts, behaviors, or risk symptoms who are seen during the denominator identification period. This measure is intended to reflect the quality of services provided for patients with a mental and/or substance use disorder diagnosis who are identified as being at increased suicide risk based upon the results of the C-SSRS or clinician determination during the denominator identification period. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (including but not limited to encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, POS 02, POS 10) are allowable.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third-party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

Patients aged 18 and older with a mental and/or substance use disorder with suicidal ideation and/or behavior symptoms OR deemed a suicide risk based on their clinician's evaluation at an encounter with an index assessment completed using the C-SSRS during the denominator identification period

Definition:

Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale – Suicidal ideation and behavior should be assessed using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale 'Screen Version' or the 'Since Last Visit' version of the CSSRS. The C-SSRS is a patient self-reported tool that asks about wish for death, thoughts of suicide, suicidal thoughts with method without specific thoughts or intent, suicidal intent without and with specific plan, and suicide behavior. The C-SSRS “score” for the current measure is the sum of all the Yes/No items (Yes = 1, No = 0) if using the ‘Screen Version’ or intensity of ideation if using the ‘Since Last Visit’ version. A non-zero on questions 1 or 2 of either C-SSRS version qualifies as having suicidal thoughts and behavior symptoms. Available at: https://cssrs.columbia.edu/

Suicide risk based on clinician's evaluation or a clinician-rated tool – A clinician may determine a patient at increased suicide risk by evaluation and clinical judgment or the use of a standardized tool, such as the CRPSR. The Clinician Rating of Potential Suicide Risk (CRPSR) is a single item clinician-rated tool that was developed and tested during the DSM-5 Field Trials. The assessment tool includes a listing of risk factors for suicide and a description of a what very high-risk patient might look like. The clinician is asked to consider the list of risk factors and the description of a very high-risk patient in their clinical evaluation of the patient, and to rate the patient’s risk for suicide and the need for suicide prevention as part of the patient’s current clinical management. A non-zero score on the CRPSR indicates the need to initiate the Suicide Safety Plan. Other clinician rated assessment tools that qualify for this measure include but are not limited to: Suicide Assessment Five-step Evaluation & Triage (SAFE-T), SAFE-T Protocol with CSSRS (Columbia Risk & Protective Factors) Lifetime/Recent, CSSRS (Columbia Risk & Protective Factors) Lifetime/Recent.

Denominator Identification Period – The period in which individuals can have an encounter with a baseline assessment using the C-SSRS. The “denominator identification period” is the 12-month window starting 4 months prior to the measurement year and ending 8 months into the measurement year.

Index Assessment – The “index assessment” refers to the encounter during the denominator identification period when the individual is identified as having suicidal ideation and/or behavior symptoms OR at being at increased suicide risk by clinician determination AND completes the first CSSRS with a non-zero score. If there are multiple assessments, the first non-zero assessment completed during the denominator identification period should be counted as the “index assessment”.

Suicidal Ideation and/or Behavior Symptoms – Any non-zero score on the C-SSRS or clinician determination of increased suicide risk.

DENOMINATOR NOTE: A patient meets criteria for exclusion if there is documentation of an exclusion diagnosis at any point during the denominator identification period.

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged 18 years and older on the date of the index encounter during the denominator identification period

AND

Diagnosis for any mental, behavioral, or substance use disorder (ICD-10-CM): F10.10, F10.11, F10.120, F10.121, F10.129, F10.130, F10.131, F10.132, F10.139, F10.14, F10.150, F10.151, F10.159, F10.180, F10.181, F10.182, F10.188, F10.19, F10.20, F10.21, F10.220, F10.221, F10.229, F10.230, F10.231, F10.232, F10.239, F10.24, F10.250, F10.251, F10.259, F10.26, F10.27, F10.280, F10.281, F10.282, F10.288, F10.29, F10.90, F10.91, F10.920, F10.921, F10.929, F10.930, F10.931, F10.932, F10.939, F10.94, F10.950, F10.951, F10.959, F10.96, F10.97, F10.980, F10.981, F10.982, F10.988, F10.99, F11.10, F11.11, F11.120, F11.121, F11.122, F11.129, F11.13, F11.14, F11.150, F11.151, F11.159, F11.181, F11.182, F11.188, F11.19, F11.20, F11.21, F11.220, F11.221, F11.222, F11.229, F11.23, F11.24, F11.250, F11.251, F11.259, F11.281, F11.282, F11.288, F11.29, F11.90, F11.91, F11.920, F11.921, F11.922, F11.929, F11.93, F11.94, F11.950, F11.951, F11.959, F11.981, F11.982, F11.988, F11.99, F12.10, F12.11, F12.120, F12.121, F12.122, F12.129, F12.13, F12.150, F12.151, F12.159, F12.180, F12.188, F12.19, F12.20, F12.21, F12.220, F12.221, F12.222, F12.229, F12.23, F12.250, F12.251, F12.259, F12.280, F12.288, F12.29, F12.90, F12.91, F12.920, F12.921, F12.922, F12.929, F12.93, F12.950, F12.951, F12.959, F12.980, F12.988, F12.99, F13.10, F13.11, F13.120, F13.121, F13.129, F13.130, F13.131, F13.132, F13.139, F13.14, F13.150, F13.151, F13.159, F13.180, F13.181, F13.182, F13.188, F13.19, F13.20, F13.21, F13.220, F13.221, F13.229, F13.230, F13.231, F13.232, F13.239, F13.24, F13.250, F13.251, F13.259, F13.26, F13.27, F13.280, F13.281, F13.282, F13.288, F13.29, F13.90, F13.91, F13.920, F13.921, F13.929, F13.930, F13.931, F13.932, F13.939, F13.94, F13.950, F13.951, F13.959, F13.96, F13.97, F13.980, F13.981, F13.982, F13.988, F13.99, F14.10, F14.11, F14.120, F14.121, F14.122, F14.129, F14.13, F14.14, F14.150, F14.151, F14.159, F14.180, F14.181, F14.182, F14.188, F14.19, F14.20, F14.21, F14.220, F14.221, F14.222, F14.229, F14.23, F14.24, F14.250, F14.251, F14.259, F14.280, F14.281, F14.282, F14.288, F14.29, F14.90, F14.91, F14.920, F14.921, F14.922, F14.929, F14.93, F14.94, F14.950, F14.951, F14.959, F14.980, F14.981, F14.982, F14.988, F14.99, F15.10, F15.11, F15.120, F15.121, F15.122, F15.129, F15.13, F15.14, F15.150, F15.151, F15.159, F15.180, F15.181, F15.182, F15.188, F15.19, F15.20, F15.21, F15.220, F15.221, F15.222, F15.229, F15.23, F15.24, F15.250, F15.251, F15.259, F15.280, F15.281, F15.282, F15.288, F15.29, F15.90, F15.91, F15.920, F15.921, F15.922, F15.929, F15.93, F15.94, F15.950, F15.951, F15.959, F15.980, F15.981, F15.982, F15.988, F15.99, F16.10, F16.11, F16.120, F16.121, F16.122, F16.129, F16.14, F16.150, F16.151, F16.159, F16.180, F16.183, F16.188, F16.19, F16.20, F16.21, F16.220, F16.221, F16.229, F16.24, F16.250, F16.251, F16.259, F16.280, F16.283, F16.288, F16.29, F16.90, F16.91, F16.920, F16.921, F16.929, F16.94, F16.950, F16.951, F16.959, F16.980, F16.983, F16.988, F16.99, F17.200, F17.201, F17.203, F17.208, F17.209, F17.210, F17.211, F17.213, F17.218, F17.219, F17.220, F17.221, F17.223, F17.228, F17.229, F17.290, F17.291, F17.293, F17.298, F17.299, F18.10, F18.11, F18.120, F18.121, F18.129, F18.14, F18.150, F18.151, F18.159, F18.17, F18.180, F18.188, F18.19, F18.20, F18.21, F18.220, F18.221, F18.229, F18.24, F18.250, F18.251, F18.259, F18.27, F18.280, F18.288, F18.29, F18.90, F18.91, F18.920, F18.921, F18.929, F18.94, F18.950, F18.951, F18.959, F18.97, F18.980, F18.988, F18.99, F19.10, F19.11, F19.120, F19.121, F19.122, F19.129, F19.130, F19.131, F19.132, F19.139, F19.14, F19.150, F19.151, F19.159, F19.16, F19.17, F19.180, F19.181, F19.182, F19.188, F19.19, F19.20, F19.21, F19.220, F19.221, F19.222, F19.229, F19.230, F19.231, F19.232, F19.239, F19.24, F19.250, F19.251, F19.259, F19.26, F19.27, F19.280, F19.281, F19.282, F19.288, F19.29, F19.90, F19.91, F19.920, F19.921, F19.922, F19.929, F19.930, F19.931, F19.932, F19.939, F19.94, F19.950, F19.951, F19.959, F19.96, F19.97, F19.980, F19.981, F19.982, F19.988, F19.99, F20.0, F20.1, F20.2, F20.3, F20.5, F20.81, F20.89, F20.9, F21, F22, F23, F24, F25.0, F25.1, F25.8, F25.9, F28, F29, F30.10, F30.11, F30.12, F30.13, F30.2, F30.3, F30.4, F30.8, F30.9, F31.0, F31.10, F31.11, F31.12, F31.13, F31.2, F31.30, F31.31, F31.32, F31.4, F31.5, F31.60, F31.61, F31.62, F31.63, F31.64, F31.70, F31.71, F31.72, F31.73, F31.74, F31.75, F31.76, F31.77, F31.78, F31.81, F31.89, F31.9, F32.0, F32.1, F32.2, F32.3, F32.4, F32.5, F32.81, F32.89, F32.9, F32.A, F33.0, F33.1, F33.2, F33.3, F33.40, F33.41, F33.42, F33.8, F33.9, F34.0, F34.1, F34.81, F34.89, F34.9, F39, F40.00, F40.01, F40.02, F40.10, F40.11, F40.210, F40.218, F40.220, F40.228, F40.230, F40.231, F40.232, F40.233, F40.240, F40.241, F40.242, F40.243, F40.248, F40.290, F40.291, F40.298, F40.8, F40.9, F41.0, F41.1, F41.3, F41.8, F41.9, F42.2, F42.3, F42.4, F42.8, F42.9, F43.0, F43.10, F43.11, F43.12, F43.20, F43.21, F43.22, F43.23, F43.24, F43.25, F43.29, F43.81, F43.89, F43.9, F44.0, F44.1, F44.2, F44.4, F44.5, F44.6, F44.7, F44.81, F44.89, F44.9, F45.0, F45.1, F45.20, F45.21, F45.22, F45.29, F45.41, F45.42, F45.8, F45.9, F48.1, F48.2, F48.8, F48.9, F50.00, F50.01, F50.02, F50.2, F50.81, F50.82, F50.89, F50.9, F51.01, F51.02, F51.03, F51.04, F51.05, F51.09, F51.11, F51.12, F51.13, F51.19, F51.3, F51.4, F51.5, F51.8, F51.9, F52.0, F52.1, F52.21, F52.22, F52.31, F52.32, F52.4, F52.5, F52.6, F52.8, F52.9, F53.0, F53.1, F54, F55.0, F55.1, F55.2, F55.3, F55.4, F55.8, F59, F60.0, F60.1, F60.2, F60.3, F60.4, F60.5, F60.6, F60.7, F60.81, F60.89, F60.9, F63.0, F63.1, F63.2, F63.3, F63.81, F63.89, F63.9, F64.0, F64.1, F64.2, F64.8, F64.9, F65.0, F65.1, F65.2, F65.3, F65.4, F65.50, F65.51, F65.52, F65.81, F65.89, F65.9, F66, F68.10, F68.11, F68.12, F68.13, F68.8, F68.A, F69, F90.0, F90.1, F90.2, F90.8, F90.9, F91.0, F91.1, F91.2, F91.3, F91.8, F91.9, F93.0, F93.8, F93.9, F94.0, F94.1, F94.2, F94.8, F94.9, F95.0, F95.1, F95.2, F95.8, F95.9, F98.0, F98.1, F98.21, F98.29, F98.3, F98.4, F98.5, F98.8, F98.9, F99

AND

Patient encounter during the denominator identification period (CPT): 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 90837, 90839, 90845, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90865, 90875*, 90876*, 90880, 90901, 90912, 96112, 96116, 96125, 96127, 96130, 96132, 96136, 96138, 96146, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99211, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99401*, 99402*, 99403*, 99404*, 99406, 99407, 99408*, 99409*, 99421, 99422, 99423, 99441, 99442, 99443

AND

Suicidal Ideation and/or Behavior Symptoms based on the C-SSRS: M1360

OR

Suicide risk based on their clinician's evaluation or a clinician-rated tool: M1361

AND

Index Assessment during the denominator period when the suicidal ideation and/or behavior symptoms or increased suicide risk by clinician determination occurs AND a non-zero C-SSRS score is obtained: M1359

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSIONS:

Patients whose functional capacity or motivation (or lack thereof) to improve may impact the accuracy of results of validated tools such as delirium, dementia, intellectual disabilities, and pervasive and specific development disorders (ICD-10-CM): F01.50, F01.511, F01.518, F01.52, F01.53, F01.54, F01.A0, F01.A11, F01.A18, F01.A2, F01.A3, F01.A4, F01.B0, F01.B11, F01.B18, F01.B2, F01.B3, F01.B4, F01.C0, F01.C11, F01.C18, F01.C2, F01.C3, F01.C4, F02.80, F02.811, F02.818, F02.82, F02.83, F02.84, F02.A0, F02.A11, F02.A18, F02.A2, F02.A3, F02.A4, F02.B0, F02.B11, F02.B18, F02.B2, F02.B3, F02.B4, F02.C0, F02.C11, F02.C18, F02.C2, F02.C3, F02.C4, F03.90, F03.911, F03.918, F03.92, F03.93, F03.94, F03.A0, F03.A11, F03.A18, F03.A2, F03.A3, F03.A4, F03.B0, F03.B11, F03.B18, F03.B2, F03.B3, F03.B4, F03.C0, F03.C11, F03.C18, F03.C2, F03.C3, F03.C4, F04, F05, F06.0, F06.1, F06.2, F06.30, F06.31, F06.32, F06.33, F06.34, F06.4, F06.70, F06.71, F06.8, F07.0, F07.81, F07.89, F07.9, F09, F70, F71, F72, F73, F78.A1, F78.A9, F79, F80.0, F80.1, F80.2, F80.4, F80.81, F80.82, F80.89, F80.9, F81.0, F81.2, F81.81, F81.89, F81.9, F82, F84.0, F84.2, F84.3, F84.5, F84.8, F84.9, F88, F89

OR

Patients who died during the measurement period: M1362

 

Numerator

Patients who demonstrated a reduction in suicidal ideation and/or behavior symptoms as demonstrated by results of a follow-up assessment using the C-SSRS within 120 days after the index assessment during the measurement period

Definitions:

Reduction – Any decrease in C-SSRS score (sum of all items).

Follow-up Assessment – “Follow-up assessment” using the C-SSRS at a separate encounter from the index assessment. This assessment was administered within 120 days after the baseline assessment within the 16-month measurement period. If there are multiple assessments during the measurement period, the last assessment completed within 120 days after the index assessment was counted as the “follow-up assessment”.

Measurement Period – A 16-month period, starting 4 months prior to the measurement year through the 12 months of the performance year.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Patients who had a reduction in suicidal ideation and/or behavior upon follow-up assessment within 120 days of index assessment (M1357)

OR

Performance Not Met: Patients who did not have a reduction in suicidal ideation and/or behavior upon follow-up assessment within 120 days of index assessment (M1358)

OR

Performance Not Met: Patients who did not have a follow-up assessment within 120 days of the index assessment (M1363)

 

Rational

Mental and substance use disorders are among the 25 leading causes of years lived with disability and contribute significantly to the global burden of disease (Mokdad et al., 2018). Specifically, 19% of U.S. adults (46.6 million individuals aged 18 and older) have a mental illness and 7.6% (18.7 million individuals aged 18 and older) have a substance use- disorder (McCance-Katz, 2019). Mental and substance use disorders often co-occur with about 8.5 million adults aged 18 and older in the US having both conditions (McCance-Katz, 2019). Individuals with mental and/or substance use disorders are at high risk for suicide - a leading cause of death in the US and a preventable cause of lost lives (Edwards et al., 2020). For the past 20 years death by suicide has increased significantly with more than 40,000 Americans dying by suicide each year and reaching over 47,000 in 2018 (Hedegaard and Warner, 2021). Adding alarm to this issue is the even greater number of Americans who attempt suicide each year (i.e., 20 to 25 times more than the number of suicide) and the resulting health consequences including the group’s 2-4 times increased risk for dying by suicide (Olfson et al., 2017). An even greater proportion of Americans (~100X) have serious thoughts of suicide (Olfson et al., 2017).

This measure encourages the provision of evidence-based care to individuals presenting to a number of health professionals across a variety of settings for the assessment and care of their mental or substance use disorders. More specifically, the proposed measure aims to avert or reduce the risk of suicide and associated outcome (i.e., suicide attempts) in this population that is at high risk for suicide and suicide attempts. The measure emphasizes patientcentered quality care, which is important for combating these prevalent and preventable outcomes that affect thousands of Americans each year.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

Suicidal ideation and behavior should be assessed using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale 'Screen Version' or the 'Since Last Visit' version of the C-SSRS (CSSR, 2008). The C-SSRS is a patient self-reported tool that asks about wish for death, thoughts of suicide, suicidal thoughts with method without specific thoughts or intent, suicidal intent without and with specific plan, and suicide behavior. The C-SSRS “score” for the current measure is the sum of all the Yes/No items (Yes = 1, No = 0) if using the ‘Screen Version’ or intensity of ideation if using the ‘Since Last Visit’ version. A non-zero on questions 1 or 2 of either C-SSRS version qualifies as at risk. C-SSRS ‘Screen Version’ available at: https://www.cms.gov/files/document/cssrs-screen-version-instrument.pdf C-SSRS ‘Since Last Visit’ available at: https://cssrs.columbia.edu/

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