Percentage of patients initially diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and who received intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) within 6 months of bladder cancer staging
Bladder cancer is ranked 10th for new cancer cases in 2020 and is the 9th leading cause of cancer death in the United States. There are 81,400 estimated new cases in 2020 and 17,980 estimated deaths in 2020. In 2016, there were an estimated 699,450 people living with bladder cancer in the United States. Early detection (discovery of cancer in situ or localized to the primary site) is found in 85% of the patients, and with these there is a five-year survival rate of 95.8% for In Situ and 69.2% for Localized. Bladder cancer is rarely found in patients under age 20, with the median age of diagnosis being 73 (NIH, 2020).
NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer (version 6.2020) defines intravesical BCG as Category 1 Treatment for Ta - high grade, T1 and Tis non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Most public data reflects prophylactic or adjuvant use of intravesical therapy with the goal of preventing recurrence or delaying progression to a higher grade or stage. BCG has been shown to be effective as prophylaxis to prevent bladder cancer recurrences following TURBT. The NCCN Bladder Cancer Panel Members recommend BCG as the preferred option over Mitomycin C for adjuvant treatment of high-grade lesions (Ta). BCG is also standard therapy for Primary Tis. Most T1 lesions are high risk and are similarly treated with adjuvant intravesical therapy with BCG being a Category 1 recommendation. (NCCN, 2020).
Clinical Recommendation Statements
Intravesical BCG should be administered within 6 months of the initial diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. It may be administered 3-4 weeks after resection, but there needs to be pathological tumor confirmation and must be withheld if there is traumatic catheterization, bacteriuria, persistent gross hematuria, persistent severe local symptoms or systemic symptoms. The normal induction course is 6 weekly instillations of intravesical BCG (AUA Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer and AUA Guideline for the Management of Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Stages Ta High Risk, T1 and TIS).