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2020 MIPS Measure #008: Heart Failure (HF): Beta-Blocker Therapy for Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (LVSD)

Quality ID 008
eMeasure ID CMS144v8
NQF 0083
High Priority Measure No
Specifications EHR Registry
Measure Type Process
Specialty Cardiology Family Medicine Hospitalists Internal Medicine Skilled Nursing Facility

Measure Description

Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with a current or prior left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy either within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting OR at each hospital discharge

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted for all heart failure patients a minimum of once per performance period when seen in the outpatient setting AND submitted at each hospital discharge (99238* and 99239*) during the performance period. Only patients who had at least two denominator eligible visits during the performance period will be counted for Submission Criteria 1.

*NOTE: When submitting CPT code 99238 and 99239, it is recommended the measure be submitted each time the code is submitted for hospital discharge.

This measure is intended to reflect the quality of services provided for patients with heart failure and decreased left ventricular systolic function. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

THERE ARE TWO SUBMISSION CRITERIA FOR THIS MEASURE:

1) All patients with a diagnosis of HF seen in the outpatient setting

OR

2) All patients with a diagnosis of HF and discharged from hospital

 

SUBMISSION CRITERIA 1: ALL PATIENTS WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF HF SEEN IN THE OUTPATIENT SETTING

Denominator (Submission Criteria 1)

All patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure with a current or prior LVEF < 40%

DENOMINATOR NOTE: LVEF < 40% corresponds to qualitative documentation of moderate dysfunction or severe dysfunction. The left ventricular systolic dysfunction may be determined by quantitative or qualitative assessment, which may be current or historical. Examples of a quantitative or qualitative assessment may include an echocardiogram: 1) that provides a numerical value of left ventricular systolic dysfunction or 2) that uses descriptive terms such as moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function. Any current or prior ejection fraction study documenting LVSD can be used to identify patients.

To meet the denominator criteria, a patient must have an active diagnosis of heart failure at the time of the encounter which is used to qualify for the denominator and evaluate the numerator.

The encounter used to evaluate the numerator counts as 1 of the 2 encounters required for denominator inclusion. If the patient meets the heart failure diagnosis criterion, the diagnosis needs to be active only at the encounter being evaluated for the numerator action.

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases) 1:

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for heart failure (ICD-10-CM): I11.0, I13.0, I13.2, I50.1, I50.20, I50.21, I50.22, I50.23, I50.30, I50.31, I50.32, I50.33, I50.40, I50.41, I50.42, I50.43, I50.814, I50.82, I50.83, I50.84, I50.89, I50.9

AND

Patient encounter during performance period – to be used for numerator evaluation (CPT): 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350

WITHOUT

Telehealth Modifier: GQ, GT, 95, POS 02

AND

At least one additional patient encounter during performance period (CPT): 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350

WITH OR WITHOUT

Telehealth Modifier: GQ, GT, 95, POS 02

AND

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% or documentation of moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function: G8923

 

Numerator (Submission Criteria 1)

Patients who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting

Definitions:

Prescribed – Outpatient Setting: prescription given to the patient for beta-blocker therapy at one or more visits in the measurement period OR patient already taking beta-blocker therapy as documented in current medication list.

Beta-blocker Therapy – For patients with prior LVEF < 40%, beta-blocker therapy should include bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate.

NUMERATOR NOTE: To meet the intent of the measure, the numerator quality action must be performed at the encounter at which the active diagnosis of heart failure is documented. Denominator Exception(s) are determined on the date of the denominator eligible encounter.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Beta-blocker therapy prescribed (G8450)

OR

Denominator Exception: Beta-Blocker Therapy for LVEF < 40% not prescribed for reasons documented by the clinician (e.g., low blood pressure, fluid overload, asthma, patients recently treated with an intravenous positive inotropic agent, allergy, intolerance, other medical reasons, patient declined, other patient reasons, or other reasons attributable to the healthcare system) (G8451)

OR

Performance Not Met: Beta-blocker therapy not prescribed (G8452)

 

OR

 

SUBMISSION CRITERIA 2: ALL PATIENTS WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF HF AND DISCHARGED FROM HOSPITAL

Denominator (Submission Criteria 2)

All patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure with a current or prior LVEF < 40%

DENOMINATOR NOTE: LVEF < 40% corresponds to qualitative documentation of moderate dysfunction or severe dysfunction. The left ventricular systolic dysfunction may be determined by quantitative or qualitative assessment, which may be current or historical. Examples of a quantitative or qualitative assessment may include an echocardiogram: 1) that provides a numerical value of left ventricular systolic dysfunction or 2) that uses descriptive terms such as moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function. Any current or prior ejection fraction study documenting LVSD can be used to identify patients.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases) 2:

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for heart failure (ICD-10-CM): I11.0, I13.0, I13.2, I50.1, I50.20, I50.21, I50.22, I50.23, I50.30, I50.31, I50.32, I50.33, I50.40, I50.41, I50.42, I50.43, I50.814, I50.82, I50.83, I50.84, I50.89, I50.9

AND

Patient encounter during performance period (CPT): 99238, 99239

AND

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% or documentation of moderately or severely depressed left ventricular systolic function: G8923

 

Numerator (Submission Criteria 2)

Patients who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy at each hospital discharge

Definitions:

Prescribed – Inpatient Setting: prescription given to the patient for beta-blocker therapy at discharge OR beta-blocker therapy to be continued after discharge as documented in the discharge medication list.

Beta-blocker Therapy – For patients with prior LVEF < 40%, beta-blocker therapy should include bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate.

NUMERATOR NOTE: To meet the intent of the measure, the numerator quality action must be performed at each denominator eligible discharge. Denominator Exception(s) are determined on the date of the denominator eligible discharge.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Beta-blocker therapy prescribed (G8450)

OR

Denominator Exception: Beta-Blocker Therapy for LVEF < 40% not prescribed for reasons documented by the clinician (e.g., low blood pressure, fluid overload, asthma, patients recently treated with an intravenous positive inotropic agent, allergy, intolerance, other medical reasons, patient declined, other patient reasons, or other reasons attributable to the healthcare system) (G8451)

OR

Performance Not Met: Beta-blocker therapy not prescribed (G8452)

 

Rationale

Beta-blockers are recommended for all patients with stable heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, unless contraindicated. Treatment should be initiated as soon as a patient is diagnosed with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and does not have low blood pressure, fluid overload, or recent treatment with an intravenous positive inotropic agent. Beta-blockers have been shown to lessen the symptoms of heart failure, improve the clinical status of patients, reduce future clinical deterioration, and decrease the risk of mortality and the combined risk of mortality and hospitalization.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

Use of 1 of the 3 beta blockers proven to reduce mortality (e.g., bisoprolol, carvedilol, and sustained-release metoprolol succinate) is recommended for all patients with current or prior symptoms of HFrEF [heart failure with reduced ejection fraction], unless contraindicated, to reduce morbidity and mortality (Class I, Level of Evidence: A) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

Treatment with a beta blocker should be initiated at very low doses [see excerpt from guideline table below] followed by gradual increments in dose if lower doses have been well tolerated... Clinicians should make every effort to achieve the target doses of the beta blockers shown to be effective in major clinical trials. Even if symptoms do not improve, long-term treatment should be maintained to reduce the risk of major clinical events. Abrupt withdrawal of treatment with a beta blocker can lead to clinical deterioration and should be avoided (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

Drugs Commonly Used for Stage C HFrEF (abbreviated to align with focus of measure to include only Beta-blocker therapy)

Table 1: Drugs Commonly Used for Stage C HFrEF Beta Blocker Therapy

DrugInitial Daily Dose(s)Maximum Dose(s)Mean Doses Achieved in Clinical Trials
Beta Blockers   
Bisoprolo1.25 mg once10 mg once8.6 mg/d
Carvedilo3.125 mg twice50 mg twice37 mg/d
Carvedilol CR10 mg once80 mg onceN/A
Metoprolol succinate extended release (metoprolol CR/XL)12.5 to 25 mg once200 mg once159 mg/d

For the hospitalized patient:

In patients with HFrEF experiencing a symptomatic exacerbation of HF requiring hospitalization during chronic maintenance treatment with GDMT [guideline-directed medical therapy; GDMT represents optimal medical therapy as defined by ACCF/AHA guideline-recommended therapies (primarily Class I)], it is recommended that GDMT be continued in the absence of hemodynamic instability or contraindications (Class I, Level of Evidence: B) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

Initiation of beta-blocker therapy is recommended after optimization of volume status and successful discontinuation of intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Beta-blocker therapy should be initiated at a low dose and only in stable patients. Caution should be used when initiating beta blockers in patients who have required inotropes during their hospital course (Class I, Level of Evidence: B) (ACCF/AHA, 2013).

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