Percentage of patients aged 12 years and older screened for depression on the date of the encounter or 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age appropriate standardized depression screening tool AND if positive, a follow-up plan is documented on the date of the eligible encounter
This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per measurement period for patients seen during the measurement period. The most recent quality-data code submitted will be used for performance calculation. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding. The follow-up plan must be related to a positive depression screening, example: “Patient referred for psychiatric evaluation due to positive depression screening”.
Measure Submission Type:
Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.
All patients aged 12 years and older at the beginning of the measurement period with at least one eligible encounter during the measurement period
DENOMINATOR NOTE: *Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.
Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):
Patients aged ≥ 12 years on date of encounter
Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT or HCPCS): 59400, 59510, 59610, 59618, 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 90837, 92625, 96105, 96110, 96112, 96116, 96125, 96136, 96138, 96156, 96158, 97161, 97162, 97163, 97165, 97166, 97167, 99078, 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99315, 99316, 99318, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99339, 99340, 99401*, 99402*, 99403*, 99483, 99484, 99492, 99493, 99384*, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99394*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, G0101, G0402, G0438, G0439, G0444
Documentation stating the patient has an active diagnosis of depression or has a diagnosed bipolar disorder, therefore screening or follow-up not required: G9717
Patients screened for depression on the date of the encounter or up to 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age appropriate standardized tool AND, if positive, a follow-up plan is documented on the date of the eligible encounter
Screening – Completion of a clinical or diagnostic tool used to identify people at risk of developing or having a certain disease or condition, even in the absence of symptoms.
Standardized Depression Screening Tool – A normalized and validated depression screening tool developed for the patient population in which it is being utilized. The name of the age appropriate standardized depression screening tool utilized must be documented in the medical record.
Examples of depression screening tools include but are not limited to:
- Adolescent Screening Tools (12-17 years)
Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A), Beck Depression Inventory-Primary Care Version (BDI-PC), Mood Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17), and PRIME MD-PHQ-2
- Adult Screening Tools (18 years and older)
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI or BDI-II), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Scale (DEPS), Duke Anxiety- Depression Scale (DADS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Cornell Scale or Depression in Dementia (CSDD), PRIME MD-PHQ-2, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QID-SR), Computerized Adaptive Testing Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), and Computerized Adaptive Diagnostic Screener (CAD-MDD)
- Perinatal Screening Tools
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Depression Screening Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory–II, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale
Follow-Up Plan – Documented follow-up for a positive depression screening must include one or more of the following:
- Additional evaluation or assessment for depression
- Suicide Risk Assessment
- Referral to a practitioner who is qualified to diagnose and treat depression
- Pharmacological interventions
- Other interventions or follow-up for the diagnosis or treatment of depression
Examples of a follow-up plan include but are not limited to:
*Additional evaluation or assessment for depression such as psychiatric interview, psychiatric evaluation, or assessment for bipolar disorder
*Completion of any Suicide Risk Assessment such as Beck Depression Inventory or Beck Hopelessness Scale
*Referral to a practitioner or program for further evaluation for depression, for example, referral to a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, mental health counselor, or other mental health service such as family or group therapy, support group, depression management program, or other service for treatment of depression
*Other interventions designed to treat depression such as psychotherapy, pharmacological interventions, or additional treatment options
*Pharmacologic treatment for depression is often indicated during pregnancy and/or lactation. Review and discussion of the risks of untreated versus treated depression is advised. Consideration of each patient’s prior disease and treatment history, along with the risk profiles for individual pharmacologic agents, is important when selecting pharmacologic therapy with the greatest likelihood of treatment effect.
Not Eligible for Depression Screening or Follow-Up Plan (Denominator Exclusion) –
- Patient has an active diagnosis of depression prior to any encounter during the measurement period - F01.51, F32.0, F32.1, F32.2, F32.3, F32.4, F32.5, F32.89, F32.9, F33.0, F33.1, F33.2, F33.3, F33.40, F33.41, F33.42, F33.8, F33.9, F34.1, F34.81, F34.89, F43.21, F43.23, F53.0, F53.1, O90.6, O99.340, O99.341, O99.342, O99.343, O99.345
- Patient has a diagnosed bipolar disorder prior to any encounter during the measurement period - F31.10, F31.11, F31.12, F31.13, F31.2, F31.30, F31.31, F31.32, F31.4, F31.5, F31.60, F31.61, F31.62, F31.63, F31.64, F31.70, F31.71, F31.72, F31.73, F31.74, F31.75, F31.76, F31.77, F31.78, F31.81, F31.89, F31.9
Patients with a Documented Reason for not Screening for Depression (Denominator Exception) – One or more of the following conditions are documented during the encounter during the measurement period:
- Patient refuses to participate
- Patient is in an urgent or emergent situation where time is of the essence and to delay treatment would jeopardize the patient’s health status
- Situations where the patient’s cognitive capacity, functional capacity or motivation to improve may impact the accuracy of results of standardized depression assessment tools. For example: certain court appointed cases or cases of delirium
A depression screen is completed on the date of the encounter or up to 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age appropriate standardized depression screening tool AND if positive, either additional evaluation for depression, suicide risk assessment, referral to a practitioner who is qualified to diagnose and treat depression, pharmacological interventions, or other interventions or follow-up for the diagnosis or treatment of depression is documented on the date of the eligible encounter. Depression screening is required once per measurement period, not at all encounters; this is patient based and not an encounter based measure. The name of the age appropriate standardized depression screening tool utilized must be documented in the medical record. The depression screening must be reviewed and addressed in the office of the provider filing the code on the date of the encounter. Positive pre-screening results indicating a patient is at high risk for self-harm should receive more urgent intervention as determined by the provider practice. The screening should occur during a qualified encounter or 14 days prior to the date of the qualifying encounter.
Performance Met: Screening for depression is documented as being positive AND a follow-up plan is documented (G8431)
Performance Met: Screening for depression is documented as negative, a follow-up plan is not required (G8510)
Denominator Exception: Screening for depression not completed, documented reason (G8433)
Performance Not Met: Depression screening not documented, reason not given (G8432)
Performance Not Met: Screening for depression documented as positive, followup plan not documented, reason not given (G8511)
Depression is a serious medical illness associated with higher rates of chronic disease increased health care utilization, and impaired functioning (Pratt& Brody, 2014). 2016 U.S. survey data indicate that 12.8 percent of adolescents (2.2 million adolescents) had a major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year, with nine percent of adolescents (2.2 million adolescents) having one MDE with severe impairment; 6.7 percent of adults aged 18 or older (16.2 million adults) had at least one MDE in the past year, with 4.3 percent of adults (10.3 million adults) having one MDE with severe impairment in the past year (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2017). Data indicate that severity of depressive symptoms factor into having difficulty with work, home, or social activities. For example, as the severity of depressive symptoms increased, rates of having difficulty with work, home, or social activities related to depressive symptoms increased. For those twelve and older with mild depressive symptoms, 45.7% reported difficulty with activities and those with severe depressive symptoms, 88.0% reported difficulty (Pratt & Brody, 2014). Children and teens with, major depressive disorder (MDD) has been found to have difficulty carrying out their daily activities, relating to others, and growing up healthy with an increased risk of suicide (Siu & the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [USPSTF], 2016). Additionally, perinatal depression (considered here as depression arising in the period from conception to the end of the first postnatal year) affects up to 15% of women. Depression and other mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders, especially during the perinatal period, can have devastating effects on women, infants, and families (Molenaar et al., 2018). Maternal suicide rates rise over hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders as a cause of maternal mortality (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2015).
Negative outcomes associated with depression make it crucial to screen in order to identify and treat depression in its early stages. While Primary Care Providers (PCPs) serve as the first line of defense in the detection of depression, studies show that PCPs fail to recognize up to 50% of depressed patients: "Coyle et al. (2003), suggested that the picture is more grim for adolescents, and that more than 70% of children and adolescents suffering from serious mood disorders go unrecognized or inadequately treated" (Borner et al., 2010, p. 948). “In nationally representative U.S. surveys, about eight percent of adolescents reported having major depression in the past year. Only 36% to 44% of children and adolescents with depression receive treatment, suggesting that the majority of depressed youth are undiagnosed and untreated” (Sui on behalf of USPSTF, 2016, p. 360 & p. 364). Evidence supports that screening for depression in pregnant and postpartum women is of moderate net benefit and treatment options for positive depression screening should be available for patients twelve and older including pregnant and postpartum women.
If preventing negative patient outcomes is not enough, the substantial economic burden of depression for individuals and society alike makes a case for screening for depression on a regular basis. Depression imposes economic burden through direct and indirect costs. “In the United States, an estimated $22.8 billion was spent on depression treatment in 2009, and lost productivity cost an additional estimated $23 billion in 2011” (Sui & USPSTF, 2016, p. 383-384).
This measure seeks to align with clinical guideline recommendations as well as the Healthy People 2020 recommendation for routine screening for mental health problems as a part of primary care for both children and adults (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014) and makes an important contribution to the quality domain of community and population health.
Clinical Recommendation Statements
Adolescent Recommendation (12-18 years):
“The USPSTF recommends screening for MDD in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Screening should be implemented with adequate systems in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate follow-up (B recommendation)” (Sui on behalf of USPSTF, 2016, p. 360).
“Clinicians and health care systems should try to consistently screen adolescents ages 12-18 for major depressive disorder, but only when systems are in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, careful selection of treatment, and close follow-up” (Wilkinson et al., 2013, p. 16).
Adult Recommendation (18 years and older)
“The USPSTF recommends screening for depression in the general adult population, including pregnant and postpartum women. Screening should be implemented with adequate systems in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate follow-up (B recommendation)” (Sui USPSTF, 2016, p. 380)
The Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) health care guideline, Adult Depression in Primary Care, provides the following recommendations:
- “Clinicians should routinely screen all adults for depression using a standardized instrument.”
- “Clinicians should establish and maintain follow-up with patients.”
- “Clinicians should screen and monitor depression in pregnant and post-partum women.” (Trangle et al., 2016 p.p. 8 – 10).