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2020 MIPS Measure #322: Cardiac Stress Imaging Not Meeting Appropriate Use Criteria: Preoperative Evaluation in Low Risk Surgery Patients

Quality ID

322

High Priority Measure

Yes

Specifications

Registry

Measure Type

Efficiency

Specialty

Cardiology

Measure Description

Percentage of stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), stress echocardiogram (ECHO), cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA), or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) performed in low-risk surgery patients 18 years or older for preoperative evaluation during the 12-month submission period

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted once per procedure of cardiac stress imaging (i.e., SPECT, MPI, ECHO, CCTA, CMR) for patients seen during the performance period. There is no diagnosis associated with this measure. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who provide the professional component of diagnostic imaging studies for cardiac stress will submit this measure.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria is used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

All instances of stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), stress echocardiogram (ECHO), cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA), or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) performed on patients aged 18 years and older during the submission period

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 18 years on date of encounter

AND

Cardiac Stress Imaging Performed – Procedure Codes (CPT): 75559, 75563, 75571, 75572, 75573, 75574, 78451, 78452, 78453, 78454, 78491, 78492, 78494, 93350, 93351

 

Numerator

Number of stress SPECT MPI, stress echo, CCTA, or CMR primarily performed in low-risk surgery patients for preoperative evaluation within 30 days preceding low-risk non-cardiac surgery

Definition:

Low-Risk Surgery – Cardiac death or MI less than 1% including, but are not limited to, endoscopic procedures, superficial procedures, cataract surgery, and excisional breast surgery.

Numerator Instructions:

INVERSE MEASURE - A lower calculated performance rate for this measure indicates better clinical care or control. The “Performance Not Met” numerator option for this measure is the representation of the better clinical quality or control. Submitting that numerator option will produce a performance rate that trends closer to 0%, as quality increases. For inverse measures, a rate of 100% means all of the denominator eligible patients did not receive the appropriate care or were not in proper control.

NUMERATOR NOTE:

• A lower calculated performance rate for this measure indicates better clinical care or control. This measure is assessing overuse of cardiac stress imaging in low-risk surgery patients.
• Patients that did not have a surgery performed or had a surgery other than those defined as low-risk would submit G8962.
• Clinical quality outcome is cardiac stress imaging NOT performed on patient who is a low-risk surgery patient within 30 days preceding procedure.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Cardiac Stress Imaging Test primarily performed on low-risk surgery patient for preoperative evaluation within 30 days preceding this surgery (G8961)

OR

Performance Not Met: Cardiac Stress Imaging Test performed on patient for any reason including those who did not have low-risk surgery or test that was performed more than 30 days preceding low-risk surgery (G8962)

 

Rationale

Cardiac imaging is a mainstay in medical decision-making for patients with known or suspected heart disease. However, expenditures related to imaging comprise a significant portion of the health care budget. Much scrutiny has been focused on cardiovascular imaging with regard to the potential for overuse, especially in view of substantial geographic variation in ordering patterns and the limited amount of evidence-based data supporting the use of imaging as it relates to patient outcomes. Given the significant contribution of heart disease to morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, it is important to determine the appropriate use of diagnostic tests such as stress echocardiography, stress SPECT MPI, CCTA, and CMR.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

Diagnostic testing, such as stress SPECT MPI, stress echocardiography, CCTA, and CMR is used to detect disease and provide risk assessment used to modify treatment strategies and approaches. Information provided by such testing can initiate, modify and stop further treatments for coronary heart disease (medications and revascularization) which have an impact on patient outcomes.

In addition, false positives and false negatives can adversely impact the patient and their treatment outcomes. Lastly, radiation from stress SPECT MPI and CCTA poses a minimal but still important consideration for patient safety.

Ensuring proper patient selection can avoid using resources in patients not expected to benefit from the testings and for which the associated risks would be unnecessary.

AUC Indication

2013 ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease (J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Feb 4;63(4):380-406)

Indication 71: Pre-Operative Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery: Moderate-to-Good Functional Capacity (greater than or equal to 4 METs) OR No Clinical Risk Factors: Any surgery – Rarely Appropriate Indication 73: Pre-Operative Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery: Poor or Unknown Functional Capacity (less than 4 METS): Low-risk surgery: Greater than or equal to 1 clinical risk factor – Rarely Appropriate

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