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2020 MIPS Measure #336: Maternity Care: Post-Partum Follow-Up and Care Coordination

Quality ID

336

High Priority Measure

Yes

Specifications

Registry

Measure Type

Process

Specialty

Obstetrics/Gynecology

Measure Description

Percentage of patients, regardless of age, who gave birth during a 12-month period who were seen for postpartum care within 8 weeks of giving birth and who received a breast-feeding evaluation and education, postpartum depression screening, postpartum glucose screening for gestational diabetes patients, family and contraceptive planning counseling, tobacco use screening and cessation education, healthy lifestyle behavioral advice, and an immunization review and update

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for all patients seen for post-partum care within 8 weeks of giving birth during the performance period. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third-party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

All patients, regardless of age, who gave birth during a 12-month period seen for post-partum care visit before or at 8 weeks of giving birth

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

All patients, regardless of age

AND

Patient procedure during performance period (CPT): 59400, 59410, 59430, 59510, 59515, 59610, 59614, 59618, 59622

AND

Post-partum care visit before or at 8 weeks post-delivery

 

Numerator

Patients receiving the following at a postpartum visit:

• Breast-feeding evaluation and education, including patient-reported breast-feeding
• Postpartum depression screening
• Postpartum glucose screening for gestational diabetes patients
• Family and contraceptive planning counseling
• Tobacco use screening and cessation education
• Healthy lifestyle behavioral advice
• Immunization review and update

Definitions:

Breast-Feeding Evaluation and Education – Patients who were evaluated for breast-feeding before or at 8 weeks postpartum.

Postpartum Depression Screening – Patients who were screened for postpartum depression before or at 8 weeks postpartum. Questions may be asked either directly by a health care provider or in the form of self- completed paper- or computer-administered questionnaires, and results should be documented in the medical record. Depression screening should include a self-reported validated depression screening tool (e.g., PHQ-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).

Postpartum Glucose Screening for Gestational Diabetes – Patients who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy who were screened with a glucose screen before or at 8 weeks postpartum.

Family and Contraceptive Planning Counseling – Patients who were provided family and contraceptive planning counseling and education (including contraception, if necessary) before or at 8 weeks postpartum.

Tobacco Use Screening and Cessation Education: Patients who were screened for tobacco use before or at 8 weeks postpartum. Patients who used any type of tobacco who were given brief counseling (3 minutes or less) and/or pharmacotherapy.

Healthy Lifestyle Behavioral Advice: Clinicians should use discretion to determine which patients they deem appropriate for healthy lifestyle counseling. Clinicians may take into account the number of weeks that have passed since childbirth, whether the mother is breast-feeding, the degree to which the mother’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds the normal range, whether postpartum depression is present, and the mother’s own feelings and perceptions of her body weight. Counseling should include suggestions around healthy eating and staying active.

If deemed necessary by the clinician, the conversation about healthy lifestyle choices could include a follow-up plan, including a referral to a specialist such as a registered dietitian nutritionist, primary care provider, or mental health professional for lifestyle/behavioral therapy, pharmacological interventions, dietary supplements, exercise counseling or nutrition counseling.

Immunization Review and Update: Patients whose immunization records were reviewed and who were provided with indicated immunizations, including completing series initiated antepartum or postpartum, at or before 8 weeks postpartum.

Numerator Instructions:

To satisfactorily meet the numerator ALL components (breast-feeding evaluation and education, postpartum depression screening, postpartum glucose screening for patients with gestational diabetes, family and contraceptive planning counseling, tobacco use screening and cessation education, healthy lifestyle behavioral advice, and immunization review and update) must be performed.

NUMERATOR OPTIONS:

Performance Met: Postpartum screenings, evaluations, and education performed (G9357)

OR

Performance Not Met: Postpartum screenings, evaluations and education, not performed (G9358)

 

Rationale

Managing and ensuring concrete postpartum follow-up after delivery is a critical challenge to the health care system impacting the quality of care mothers receive. ACOG sees the weeks following birth as a critical period for a woman and her child that set the stage for long-term health and well-being. As such, this “fourth trimester” should include a comprehensive postpartum visit with a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being.

Postpartum follow-up for depression screening, breast-feeding evaluation, family planning, glucose screening, tobacco use cessation and education, healthy lifestyle behavioral advice, and immunization review and update are important risk factors to evaluate after childbirth. Maternal depression is one of the most common perinatal complications; however, the disorder remains under recognized, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. The various maternal depression disorders are defined by the severity of the depression and the timing and length of the episode. Studies report that 3 to 25 percent of womenexperience major depression during the year following childbirth.

Establishing the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus offers an opportunity not only to improve pregnancy outcomes, but also to decrease risk factors associated with the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (ACOG) Committee on Obstetric Practice recommends that all women with gestational diabetes mellitus be screened at 6–12 weeks postpartum and managed appropriately.

Tobacco and nicotine use is still a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women and men. Women who stop using tobacco and nicotine receive an immediate health and financial benefit.

ACOG acknowledges that unintended pregnancies are common and that pregnancy spacing is important for healthy families. In addition, the greatest risk of low birth weight and preterm birth occurs when the interconception interval is less than 6 months. The ACOG sees the weeks following birth as a critical period for a woman and her child that set the stage for long -term health and well-being. As such, this “fourth trimester” should include a comprehensive postpartum visit with a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being.

The ACOG 2018 Postpartum Toolkit states that immunization in the postpartum period is a simple and effective way to protect the woman and her child from certain infections, particularly when the woman was not immunized during pregnancy. Although obstetrician–gynecologists encourage women of childbearing age to be current with their immunizations before the peripartum period, postpartum maternal immunization can prevent acute maternal infection and potential spread of illness from the woman to her newborn. Infants of breast-feeding women acquire maternal antibodies through breast milk.

This measure is a measure of the adequacy of the care provided for those that come for postpartum care, as patients who do not have postpartum visits are excluded from this measure.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

The following evidence statements are quoted from the referenced clinical guidelines.

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 736, Optimizing Postpartum Care, 2018:

The comprehensive postpartum visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being, including the following domains:

  • Mood and emotional well-being
  • Infant care and feeding
  • Sexuality, contraception, and birth spacing
  • Sleep and fatigue
  • Physical recovery from birth
  • Chronic disease management
  • Health maintenance

Breast-Feeding Evaluation and Education

The USPSTF recommends interventions during pregnancy and after birth to promote and support breast-feeding

This recommendation applies to pregnant women, new mothers, and young children. In rare circumstances involving health issues in mothers or infants, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or galactosemia, breastfeeding may be contraindicated, and interventions to promote breast-feeding may not be appropriate.

Interventions to promote and support breast-feeding may also involve a woman's partner, other family members, and friends.

Postpartum Depression Screening

The VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Pregnancy Management, 2009 states that a screening for postpartum depression should be included in the postpartum visit. The 10-question Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a valuable and efficient way of identifying patients at risk for “perinatal” depression. The EPDS is easy to administer and has proven to be an effective screening tool. Mothers who score above 13 are likely to be suffering from a depressive illness of varying severity. The EPDS score should not override clinical judgment. A careful clinical assessment should be carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The scale indicates how the mother has felt during the previous week. In doubtful cases it may be useful to repeat the tool after 2 weeks.

Glucose Screening for Gestational Diabetes Patients

The ACOG Tool for Postpartum Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Follow-up states that up to one-third of women who experienced GDM will have impaired glucose metabolism postpartum and 15% to 50% of women will develop type 2 diabetes within the decades following the affected pregnancy. Postpartum follow-up with treatment has been proven to postpone or prevent this occurrence. The 2009 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Pregnancy Management concurs that glucose testing should be included in the postpartum visit for patients who had pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. According to VA/DoD, the two-hour 75g oral glucose test is recommended, but a fasting glucose can also be done.

Family and Contraceptive Planning Counseling

The ACOG Committee Opinion #544: Over-the-Counter to Oral Contraceptives, explains that short interpregnancy intervals have been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, including low birth weight and prematurity. The ACOG Committee Opinion #666: Optimizing Postpartum Care states that the optimal interval between delivery and subsequent pregnancy is 18 months to 5 years. The VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Pregnancy Management, 2009, states that education about contraception and sexual activity should be included in the postpartum visit. Further, the ACOG Committee Opinion #736, May 2018, states that a woman’s future pregnancy intentions provide a context for shared decision making regarding contraceptive options. Shared decision making brings two experts to the table: the patient and the health care provider. The health care provider is an expert in the clinical evidence, and the patient is an expert in her experiences and values. As affirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO), when making choices regarding the timing of the next pregnancy, “Individuals and couples should consider health risks and benefits along with other circumstances such as their age, fecundity, fertility aspirations, access to health services, child-rearing support, social and economic circumstances, and personal preferences.” Given the complex history of sterilization abuse and fertility control among marginalized women, care should be taken to ensure that every woman is provided information on the full range of contraceptive options so that she can select the method best suited to her needs.

Tobacco Screening and Cessation Education

The ACOG Committee Opinion No. 736: Optimizing Postpartum Care, 2018 recommends that one component of postpartum care be assessing mood and emotional well-being, which includes screening for tobacco use and counseling regarding relapse risk in the postpartum period. An ACOG Work Group created a Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Toolkit to support clinicians in discussing tobacco and smoking cessation with patients.

Healthy Lifestyle Behavioral Advice

The ACOG 2018 Postpartum Toolkit states that approximately 65% of reproductive-aged women are overweight or obese at the time of pregnancy and are at risk of postpartum weight retention and chronic obesity.

Risk factors for being overweight or obese include a sedentary lifestyle, high caloric dietary intake, family history, genetics, and individual metabolism. Regular physical activity during an uncomplicated pregnancy and the postpartum period can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and reduce the risk and downstream health consequences (e.g., heart disease, diabetes) of being overweight or obese. According to ACOG, postpartum women should follow the national guidelines for physical activity, which is 150 minutes of moderate exercise each week. Recommendations include a target of 20–30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week. In its Postpartum Toolkit: Achieving a Healthy Weight in the Postpartum Patient, ACOG identifies that providing lifestyle recommendations to promote maternal health for long-term reduction in the risk of chronic obesity and its downstream sequelae of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is a key objective of the postpartum visit. Such recommendations will also result in improved health in the interpregnancy period, if further childbearing is desired. In addition, the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Pregnancy Management, 2009 states that education about weight and exercise should be included in the postpartum visit.

Immunization Review and Update

The ACOG Committee Opinion No. 736: Optimizing Postpartum Care, 2018 states that one component of postpartum care includes reviewing vaccination history and providing indicated immunizations, including completing series initiated antepartum or postpartum. The VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Pregnancy Management, 2009 states that initiation or continuation of the HPV vaccine series should be included in the postpartum visit for patients less than 26 years of age. In addition, the ACOG Committee Opinion No. 732: Influenza Vaccination during Pregnancy, 2018 states that the influenza vaccine is an essential element of pre-pregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum care because influenza can result in serious illness and has a higher chance of progressing to pneumonia when it occurs during the antepartum or postpartum period.

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