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2020 MIPS Measure #383: Adherence to Antipsychotic Medications For Individuals with Schizophrenia

Quality ID 383
NQF 1879
High Priority Measure Yes
Specifications Registry
Measure Type Intermediate Outcome
Specialty Clinical Social Work Family Medicine Internal Medicine Mental/Behavioral Health

Measure Description

Percentage of individuals at least 18 years of age as of the beginning of the measurement period with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had at least two prescriptions filled for any antipsychotic medication and who had a Proportion of Days Covered (PDC) of at least 0.8 for antipsychotic medications during the measurement period (12 consecutive months)

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for all patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder seen during the performance period. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure for the primary management of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

Individuals at least 18 years of age as of the beginning of the measurement period with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and at least two prescriptions filled for antipsychotic medications during the measurement period (12 consecutive months)

DENOMINATOR NOTE: The following are the oral antipsychotic medications by class for the denominator. The route of administration includes all oral formulations of the medications listed below.

TYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS:

• chlorpromazine
• fluphenazine
• haloperidol
• loxapine
• molindone
• perphenazine
• prochlorperazine
• thioridazine
• thiothixene
• trifluoperazine

ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS:

• aripiprazole
• asenapine
• brexpiprazole
• cariprazine
• clozapine
• olanzapine
• iloperidone
• lurasidone
• paliperidone
• quetiapine
• quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel)
• risperidone
• ziprasidone

ANTIPSYCHOTIC COMBINATIONS:

• perphenazine-amitriptyline

LONG-ACTING INJECTABLE ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS:

NOTE: The following are the long-acting (depot) injectable antipsychotic medications by class for the denominator. The route of administration includes all injectable and intramuscular formulations of the medications listed below.

TYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS:

• fluphenazine decanoate (J2680)
• haloperidol decanoate (J1631)

ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS:

• aripiprazole (J0401)
• aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada)
• olanzapine pamoate (J2358)
• paliperidone palmitate (J2426)
• risperidone microspheres (J2794)

NOTE: Since the days’ supply variable is not reliable for long-acting injections in administrative data, the days’ supply is imputed as listed below for the long-acting (depot) injectable antipsychotic medications billed under Part D and Part B:

• aripiprazole (J0401) – 28 days’ supply
• aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) – 28 days’ supply
• fluphenazine decanoate (J2680) – 28 days’ supply
• haloperidol decanoate (J1631) – 28 days’ supply
• olanzapine pamoate (J2358) – 28 days’ supply
• paliperidone palmitate (J2426) – 28 days’ supply
• risperidone microspheres (J2794) – 14 days’ supply

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 18 years at the beginning of the measurement period

AND

Diagnosis for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ICD-10-CM): F20.0, F20.1, F20.2, F20.3, F20.5, F20.81, F20.89, F20.9, F25.0, F25.1, F25.8, F25.9

AND

At least two encounters** with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (see code set below) with different dates of service in an outpatient setting, emergency department setting, or non-acute inpatient setting during the measurement period

OR

At least one encounter** with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (see code set below) in an acute inpatient setting during the measurement period

AND

**Patient encounter during the performance period determination Outpatient Setting Option 1 (CPT or HCPCS): 98960, 98961, 98962, 99078, 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99211, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99217, 99218, 99219, 99220, 99241*, 99242*, 99243*, 99244*, 99245*, 99281, 99282, 99283, 99284, 99285, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99315, 99316, 99318, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, 99401*, 99402*, 99403*, 99404*, 99411*, 99412*, 99429*, 99510, G0155*, G0176*, G0177*, G0409, G0410*, G0411*, G0463*, H0002*, H0004*, H0031*, H0034*, H0035*, H0036*, H0037*, H0039*, H0040*, H2000*, H2001*, H2010*, H2011*, H2012*, H2013*, H2014*, H2015*, H2016*, H2017*, H2018*, H2019*, H2020*, M0064, S0201*, S9480*, S9484*, S9485*, T1015*

OR

Outpatient Setting Option 2 (CPT): 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 9083790839, 90845, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90867, 90868, 90869, 90870, 90875*, 90876*, 90880, 99221, 99222, 99223, 99231, 99232, 99233, 99238, 99239, 99251*, 99252*, 99253*, 99254*, 99255*, 99291

WITH

Place of Service (POS): 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 22, 24, 33, 49, 50, 52, 53, 71, 72

OR

Emergency Department Setting Option 1 (CPT): 99281, 99282, 99283, 99284, 99285

OR

Emergency Department Setting Option 2 (CPT): 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 90837, 90839, 90845, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90867, 90868, 90869, 90870, 90875*, 90876*, 99291

WITH

Place of Service (POS): 23

OR

Non-Acute Inpatient Setting Option 1 (CPT): 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99315, 99316, 99318, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337

Non-Acute Inpatient Setting Option 1 (HCPCS): H0017, H0018, H0019, T2048

OR

Non-Acute Inpatient Setting Option 2 (CPT): 90791, 90792, 9083290834, 90837, 90839, 90845, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90867, 90868, 90869, 90870, 90875*, 90876*, 99291

WITH

Place of Service (POS): 31, 32, 56

OR

Acute Inpatient Setting (CPT): 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 90837, 90839, 90845, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90867, 90868, 90869, 90870, 90875*, 90876*, 99221, 99222, 99223, 99231, 99232, 99233, 99238, 99239, 99251*, 99252*, 99253*, 99254*, 99255*, 99291

WITH

Place of Service (POS): 21, 51

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSION:

Diagnosis for dementia (ICD-10-CM): E75.00, E75.01, E75.02, E75.09, E75.10, E75.11, E75.19, E75.4, F01.50, F01.51, F02.80, F02.81, F03.90, F03.91, F05, F10.27, F13.27, F13.97, F18.17, F18.27, F18.97, F19.17, F19.27, F19.97, G30.0, G30.1, G30.8, G30.9, G31.09, G31.83

 

Numerator

Individuals in the denominator who have a Proportion of Days Covered (PDC) of at least 0.8 for antipsychotic medications

NUMERATOR NOTE: The PDC is calculated as follows:

PDC NUMERATOR:

The PDC numerator is the sum of the days covered by the days’ supply of all antipsychotic prescriptions. The period covered by the PDC starts on the day the first prescription is filled (index date) and lasts through the end of the measurement period, or death, whichever comes first. For prescriptions with a days’ supply that extends beyond the end of the measurement period, count only the days for which the drug was available to the individual during the measurement period. If there are prescriptions for the same drug (generic name) on the same date of service, keep the prescription with the largest days’ supply. If prescriptions for the same drug (generic name) overlap, then adjust the prescription start date to be the day after the previous fill has ended.

PDC DENOMINATOR:

The PDC denominator is the number of days from the first prescription date through the end of the measurement period, or death date, whichever comes first.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Individual had a PDC of 0.8 or greater (G9512)

OR

Performance Not Met: Individual did not have a PDC of 0.8 or greater (G9513)

 

Rationale

A large body of evidence has shown that antipsychotic medications are effective in treating acute psychotic exacerbations of schizophrenia and in reducing the likelihood of relapse. Guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and American Psychiatric Association (APA) emphasize the importance of treatment adherence and uninterrupted antipsychotic regimens to prevent symptoms and relapse (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health 2014; Lehman et al. 2004). This measure will describe the degree of compliance or non-compliance with these recommendations. By providing information on the percentage of schizophrenic individuals with appropriate long-term use of antipsychotic medications, this measure has the potential to improve management of schizophrenia.

This measure addresses a Health People 2020 goal to increase the proportion of adults with serious mental illness who receive treatment (ODPHP, 2018).

Although the prevalence of schizophrenia in the adult American population is less than 1% (Kessler et al. 2005), this population has a higher risk of premature mortality than the general population. The estimated average potential life lost is 28.5 years for individuals with schizophrenia compared to the general population (Olfson et al. 2015). The overall U.S. cost of schizophrenia has been estimated at $155.7 billion annually with direct health care costs of $37.7 billion (Cloutier et al., 2016). Antipsychotic medications have proven to be effective in treating this disease, and this measure will help to capture the extent of utilization of this treatment.

References:

Cloutier M, Aigbogun MS, Guerin A, Nitulescu R, Ramanakumar AV, Kamat SA, DeLucia M, Duffy R, Legacy SN, Henderson C, Francois C, and Wu E. The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2013. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2016; 77(6): 764-71.

Kessler RC, Birnbaum H, Demler O, Falloon IRH, Gagnoon E, Guyer M, Howes MJ, Kendler KS, Shi L, Walters E, and Wu EQ. The prevalence and correlates of non-affective psychosis in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 58(8): 668-76.

Lehman AF, Lieberman JA., Dixon LB, McGlashan TH, Miller AL, Perkins DO, and Kreyenbuhl J. (2004). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/schizophrenia.pdf

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental health. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. 2014; National Clinical Guideline Number 178: 301-379. Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg178/evidence/full-guideline-pdf-490503565

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Health People 2020: Mental Health and Mental Disorders.2018; Health People 2020. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/mentalhealth-and-mental-disorders/objectives.

Olfson M, Gerhard T, Huang C, Crystal S, and Stroup TS. Premature mortality among adults with schizophrenia in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015; 72(12): 1172-81.


Clinical Recommendation Statements

The 2014 NICE Guideline on Treatment and Management of Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults recommends that “for people with an acute exacerbation or recurrence of psychosis or schizophrenia, offer oral antipsychotic medication in conjunction with psychological interventions (family intervention and individual [cognitive behavioral therapy])”. The guideline also recommends to “consider offering depot /long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication to people with psychosis or schizophrenia who would prefer such treatment after an acute episode [or] where avoiding covert non-adherence (either intentional or unintentional) to antipsychotic medication is a clinical priority within the treatment plan” (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health 2014). These recommendations are found on pages 381 and 382 of the 2014 NICE Guideline under the Clinical Practice Recommendations, Treatment of Acute Episode and Promoting Recovery sections, respectively.

References:

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental health. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. 2014; National Clinical Guideline Number 178: 301-379. Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg178/evidence/full-guideline-pdf-490503565

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