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2021 MIPS Measure #065: Appropriate Treatment for Children with Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)

Quality ID

065

eMeasure ID

CMS154v9

NQF

0069

High Priority Measure

Yes

Specifications

EHR Registry

Measure Type

Process

Specialty

Family Medicine Otolaryngology Pediatrics Urgent Care

Measure Description

Percentage of episodes for patients 3 months of age and older with a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection (URI) that did not result in an antibiotic dispensing event

 

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted once for each occurrence of upper respiratory infection during the performance period. Claims data will be analyzed to determine unique occurrences. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding.

NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (e.g., encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, or POS 02 modifiers) are allowable.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.

 

Denominator

Outpatient visits, telephone visits, online assessments, observation stays or emergency department visits with a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection (URI) during the measurement period among patients 3 months of age and older.

Denominator Instructions:

This is an episode of care measure that examines all eligible episodes for the patient during the measurement period. If the patient has more than one episode in a 31-day period, include only the first episode.

DENOMINATOR NOTE: *Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged 3 months of age and older on date of encounter

AND

Diagnosis for URI (ICD-10-CM): J00, J06.0, J06.9

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT or HCPCS): 98966, 98967, 98968, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99218, 99219, 99220, 99281, 99282, 99283, 99284, 99285, 99381*, 99382*, 99383*, 99384*, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99391*, 99392*, 99393*, 99394*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, 99441, 99442, 99443

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSIONS:

URI episodes where the patient had a competing comorbid condition during the 12 months prior to or on the episode date (e.g., tuberculosis, neutropenia, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, rheumatoid lung disease): G2173

OR

URI episodes when the patient had a new or refill prescription of antibiotics (Table 1) in the 30 days prior to or on the episode date: G2174

OR

URI episodes when the patient had competing diagnoses on or three days after the episode date (e.g., intestinal infection, pertussis, bacterial infection, Lyme disease, otitis media, acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, chronic sinusitis, infection of the pharynx/larynx/tonsils/adenoids, prostatitis, cellulitis, mastoiditis, or bone infections, acute lymphadenitis, impetigo, skin staph infections, pneumonia/gonococcal infections, venereal disease (syphilis, chlamydia, inflammatory diseases [female reproductive organs]), infections of the kidney, cystitis or UTI, and acne): G8709

OR

Patients who use hospice services any time during the measurement period: G9700

Table 1 - Antibiotic Medications
Note: This list should be used when assessing antibiotic prescriptions for the denominator exclusion and numerator components.

Description

Prescription 

Aminopenicillins

• Amoxicillin

• Ampicillin 

Beta-lactamase inhibitors

• Amoxicillin-clavulanate

 

First generation cephalosporins

• Cefadroxi

• Cefazolin

• Cephalexin

Folate antagonist

• Trimethoprim

 

Lincomycin derivatives

• Clindamycin

 

Macrolides

• Azithromycin

• Clarithromycin

• Erythromycin

• Erythromycin ethylsuccinate

• Erythromycin lactobionate

• Erythromycin stearate

Natural penicillins

• Penicillin G potassium

• Penicillin G sodium

• Penicillin V potassium

• Pencicillin G benzathine

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins

• Dicloxacillin

 

Quinolones

• Ciprofloxacin

• Levofloxacin

• Moxifloxacin

• Ofloxacin

Second generation cephalosporins

• Cefaclor

• Cefprozil

• Cefuroxime

Sulfonamides

• Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim

 

Tetracyclines

• Doxycycline

• Minocycline

• Tetracycline

Third generation cephalosporins

• Cefdinir

• Cefixime

• Cefpodoxime

• Ceftibuten

• Cefditoren

• Ceftriaxone

 

Numerator

URI episodes without a prescription for antibiotic medication (Table 1) on or 3 days after the outpatient visit, telephone visit, online assessment, observation stay or emergency department visit for an upper respiratory infection

Numerator Instructions:

For performance, the measure will be calculated as the number of patient’s encounter(s) where antibiotics from Table 1 were neither prescribed nor dispensed on or within three days of the episode for URI over the total number of encounters in the denominator. A higher score indicates appropriate treatment of patients with URI (e.g., the proportion for whom antibiotics were not prescribed or dispensed following the episode). Delayed prescriptions (where an antibiotic was prescribed and patient was instructed to delay taking the antibiotic) are considered “Performance Not Met”.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Patient not prescribed or dispensed antibiotic (G8708)

OR

Performance Not Met: Patient prescribed or dispensed antibiotic (G8710)

 

Rationale

Most upper respiratory infections (URI), also known as the common cold, are caused by viruses that require no antibiotic treatment. Too often, antibiotics are prescribed inappropriately, which can lead to antibiotic resistance (when antibiotics can no longer cure bacterial infections). In the United States, at least 2 million antibiotic-resistant illnesses and 23,000 deaths occur each year, at a cost to the U.S. economy of at least $30 billion.

 

Clinical Recommendation Statements

American Family Physician (Fashner, Ericson, and Werner, Khilberg 2012)

- Antibiotics should not be used for the treatment of cold symptoms in children or adults. (A)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce pain secondary to upper respiratory tract infection in adults. (A)
- Decongestants, antihistamine/decongestant combinations, and intranasal ipratropium (Atrovent) may improve cold symptoms in adults. (B)

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