Percentage of patients 65 years of age and older who have ever received a pneumococcal vaccine
This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for patients seen during the performance period. There is no diagnosis associated with this measure. Performance for this measure is not limited to the performance period. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on services provided and the measure- specific denominator coding.
NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (e.g., encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, or POS 02 modifiers) are allowable.
Measure Submission Type:
Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.
Patients 65 years of age and older with a visit during the measurement period
DENOMINATOR NOTE: This measure assesses whether patients 65 years of age or older have received one or more pneumococcal vaccinations.
DENOMINATOR NOTE: *Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.
Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):
Patients aged ≥ 65 years on date of encounter
Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT or HCPCS): 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99315, 99316, 99324, 99325, 99326, 99327, 99328, 99334, 99335, 99336, 99337, 99341, 99342, 99343, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, G0438, G0439
Patient received hospice services any time during the measurement period: G9707
Patients who have ever received a pneumococcal vaccination before the end of the measurement period
NUMERATOR NOTE: While the measure provides credit for adults 65 years of age and older who have ever received either the PCV13 or PPSV23 vaccine (or both), according to ACIP recommendations, patients should receive both vaccines. The order and timing of the vaccinations depends on certain patient characteristics, and are described in more detail in the ACIP recommendations.
Performance Met: Pneumococcal vaccine administered or previously received (4040F)
Performance Not Met: Pneumococcal vaccine was not administered or previously received, reason not otherwise specified (4040F with 8P)
Pneumonia is a common cause of illness and death in the elderly and persons with certain underlying conditions. The major clinical syndromes of pneumococcal disease include pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, with pneumonia being the most common (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015a). Pneumonia symptoms generally include fever, chills, pleuritic chest pain, cough with sputum, dyspnea, tachypnea, hypoxia tachycardia, malaise and weakness. There is an estimated 400,000 cases of pneumonia in the U.S. each year and a 5 percent-7 percent mortality rate, although it may be higher among older adults and adults in nursing homes (CDC, 2015b; Janssens & Krause, 2004).
Among the 91.5 million US adults aged > 50 years, 29,500 cases of IPD, 502,600 cases of nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and 25,400 pneumococcal-related deaths are estimated to occur yearly; annual direct and indirect costs are estimated to total $3.7 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively. Pneumococcal disease remains a substantial burden among older US adults, despite increased coverage with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, (PPV23) and indirect benefits afforded by PCV7 vaccination of young children (Weycker et al., 2011).
Pneumococcal vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease. When comparing costs, outcomes and quality adjusted life years, immunization with the two recommended pneumococcal vaccines was found to be more economically efficient than no vaccination, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $25,841 per quality-adjusted life year gained (Chen et al., 2014).
Clinical Recommendation Statements
In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) began recommending a dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) be followed by a dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 6-12 months later in adults aged 65 and older who have not previously received a pneumococcal vaccination, and in persons over the age of two years who are considered to be at higher risk for pneumococcal disease due to an underlying condition. The two vaccines should not be coadministered and intervals for administration of the two vaccines vary slightly depending on the age, risk group, and history of vaccination (Kobayashi, 2015).
In 2015, ACIP updated its recommendation and changed the interval between PCV13 and PPSV23, from 6-12 months to at least one year for immunocompetent adults aged >=65 years who have not previously received pneumococcal vaccine. For immunocompromised vaccine-naïve adults, the minimum acceptable interval between PCV13 and PPSV23 is 8 weeks. Both immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults aged >=65 years who have previously received a dose of PPSV23 when over the age of 65 should receive a dose of PCV13 at least one year after PPSV23 (>=1 year). Immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults aged >=65 who have previously received a dose of PPSV23 when under the age of 65, should also receive a dose of PCV13 at least one year after PPSV23 (>=1 year) and then another dose of PPSV23 at least one year after PCV13. It is recommended that for those that have this alternative three-dose schedule (2 PPSV23 and 1 PCV13), the three doses should be spread over a time period of five or more years (Kobayashi, 2015).